1            Introduction . 5

1.1        Access For All Overview .. 5

1.2        Scope and Context . 5

1.3        Structure of this Document . 5

1.4        Compatibility with Version 2.0 . 5

1.5        Nomenclature . 6

1.6        References 6

2            Personal Needs & Preferences . 8

3            Information Model . 10

3.1        AccessModeRequired Attribute Description . 12

3.2        AdaptationTypeRequired Attribute Description . 13

3.3        AtInteroperable Attribute Description . 14

3.4        EducationalComplexityOfAdaptation Attribute Description . 14

3.5        HazardAvoidance Attribute Description . 15

3.6        InputRequirements Attribute Description . 15

3.7        LanguageOfAdaptation Attribute Description . 16

3.8        LanguageOfInterface Attribute Description . 16

3.9        AdaptationDetailRequired Attribute Description . 17

3.10      AdaptationMediaRequired Attribute Description . 18

3.11      EducationalLevelOfAdaptation Attribute Description . 19

3.12      Extension Attribute Description . 19

3.13      AccessModeRequired Class Description . 20

3.13.1                                                                                                           ‘ExistingAccessMode’ Attribute Description . 20

3.13.2                                                                                                              ‘AdaptationRequest’ Attribute Description . 21

3.14      AdaptationTypeRequired Class Description . 21

3.14.1                                                                                                           ‘ExistingAccessMode’ Attribute Description . 22

3.14.2                                                                                                              ‘AdaptationRequest’ Attribute Description . 22

3.15      AdaptationDetailRequired Class Description . 23

3.15.1                                                                                                           ‘ExistingAccessMode’ Attribute Description . 23

3.15.2                                                                                                              ‘AdaptationRequest’ Attribute Description . 24

3.16      AdaptationMediaRequired Class Description . 24

3.16.1                                                                                                           ‘ExistingAccessMode’ Attribute Description . 25

3.16.2                                                                                                              ‘AdaptationRequest’ Attribute Description . 25

4            Extending the Specification . 26

5            Conformance . 27

Appendix A – The IMS UML Profile Notation . 28

About This Document . 30

List of Contributors 30

Revision History . 30

List of Figures

Figure 2.1 Concepts behind personalization. 8

Figure 2.2 Personal needs and preferences 8

1               Introduction

1.1          Access For All Overview

The Access For All Specification (AfA) is intended to promote an inclusive user experience by enabling the matching of the characteristics of resources to the needs and preferences of individual users. The AfA specification consists of a common language for describing:

Š        A learner’s needs and preferences with respect to how the learner can best interact with digital resources, including configuration of assistive technologies.   This is represented using the IMS Global Access For All Personal Needs and Preferences (PNP ) v3.0 specification i.e. this document;

Š        Digital learning resources. This is represented using the IMS Global Access For All Digital Resource Description (DRD ) v3.0 specification [AfADRD, 12];

1.2          Scope and Context

This part of the Access For All specification provides a common language for describing the learner or user needs and preferences when accessing digitally delivered resources or services. This description is one side of a pair of descriptions used in matching user needs and preferences with digital delivery.

The AfA PNP specification is intended to meet the needs of learners with disabilities and of anyone in a disabling context. The purpose of the AfA PNP Specification is to provide a machine-readable method of stating user needs and preferences with respect to digitally based education or learning. The AfA PNP specification can be used independently, for example to deliver the required or desired user interface to the user, or in combination with the Access for All Specification Digital Resource Description [AfADRD, 12] to deliver digital resources that meet a user’s needs and preferences.

1.3          Structure of this Document

The structure of this document is:

2.  Personal Needs & Preferences
The underlying data model for the PNP;
3.  Information Model
The information model for the components that constitute the PNP;
4.  Extending the Specification
An explanation of how the functionality of the specification can be extended using the extension features;
5.  Conformance
The expectations for systems, applications and tools that wish to claim compliance to this specification;
Appendix A - The IMS UML Profile Notation
The IMS profile of UML for the platform independent model used to describe an information model.

1.4          Compatibility with Version 2.0

The information models for AfA PNP v2.0 and v3.0 have many similarities but there are many differences. There is no backwards compatibility between versions 2 and 3.

This release of the specification (3.0) is designed to provide a very simple but extensible model and encourage early adoption and implementation. It was initially modeled using a semantic web approach then described using UML to support a particular class of implementations. The range of properties or attributes modeled and their representation is much simpler than in Access For All 2.0 in order to better support those properties identified as important by early adopters of previous versions. As such backwards compatibility with Access For All 2.0 has not been provided for as the team considered it important to establish a simpler way to represent the properties. A number of the properties in Access for All 3.0 have semantic equivalents in AfA2 that could be mapped to their AfA3 versions.


1.5          Nomenclature

AfA                    Access For All

AfA DRD            Access for All Digital Resource Description

AfA PNP            Access for All Personal Needs & Preferences

API                    Application Programming Interface

ARIA                 Accessible Rich Internet Applications

ASCII                American Standard Code for Information Interchange

AT <                    Assistive Technology

AT-SPI              Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface

ATK                  Accessibility Toolkit

DAISY               Digital Accessible Information System

DRD                  Digital Resource Description

IMS Global         IMS Global Learning Consortium Inc.

ISO                    International Standards Organization

MSAA               Microsoft Active Accessibility

NIMAS              National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard

OEBPS              Open eBook Publication Structure

PDF                   Portable Document Format

PEF                   Portable Embosser Format

PIM                   Platform Independent Model

PNP                   Personal Needs & Preferences

UML                  Unified Modeling Language

W3C                  World Wide Web Consortium

WAI                  Web Accessibility Initiative

WCAG               Web Content Accessibility Guidelines

XML                  Extensible Mark-up Language

1.6          References

[AfA, 12a]                 IMS Global Access For All Specification Overview v1.0 , R.Schwerdtfeger, M.Rothberg and C.Smythe, Public Draft, IMS Global Inc., September 2012.

[AfABPIG, 12]           IMS Global Access For All v3.0 Best Practices Guide v1.0, R.Schwerdtfeger, M.Rothberg and C.Smythe, Public Draft, IMS Global Inc., September 2012.

[AfADES, 12]            IMS Global Access For All v3.0 Data Element Specification v1.0, R.Schwerdtfeger, M.Rothberg and C.Smythe, Pubic Draft IMS Global Inc., September 2012.

[AfADRD, 12]           IMS Global Access For All Digital Resource v3.0 Description Information Model v1.0, R.Schwerdtfeger, M.Rothberg and C.Smythe, Public Draft, IMS Global Inc., September 2012.

[ISO639, 98]             ISO   639-2:1998 (E/F), Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code/Codes pour la représentation des noms de langue — Partie 2: Code alpha-3 .

[RFC4646]                RFC   4646: Tags for identifying Languages , A.Phillips and M.Davis, The Internet Society, September 2006.

[WCAG2, 98]            W3C /WAI   Web Content Accessibility Guidelines   2.0 [W3C/WAI WCAG ] , W3C, 1998,
http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-WCAG20-20081211/ .

2               Personal Needs & Preferences

Figure 2.1 describes the associations between a user, their operating contexts, and their preferences statement. A context for a user describes a set of conditions in which associated Personal Needs and Preferences statement might apply. Conditions might be environmental (such as “it's dark”), might relate to specific information and communications technology or services available (such as “when a Braille display is available”), or might refer to social situations (such as “when my care provider is present”) or other scenarios.

Person has many Contexts each described by a Personal Needs and Preferences Statement (PNP)

Figure 2.1 Concepts behind personalization.

A list of the properties shown in this diagram is in Table 3.2. Special relationships are described below the image.

Figure 2.2 Personal needs and preferences

Figure 2.2 illustrates the accessibility properties (described here as attributes) and how they relate to each other. [1] These properties would ultimately be used by a resource matching system to deliver a personalized, accessible user experience when matching resources tagged by DRD resource properties. In Figure 2.2, all of the properties are shown but vocabularies for each property are not included, with the exception of AccessModeValue and AdaptationTypeValue , which are shown to illustrate several relationships: accessModeRequired takes accessModeValue as both its existingAccessMode and its adaptationRequest ; adaptationTypeRequired has AccessModeValue as its existingAccessMode and AdaptationTypeValue as its adaptationRequest; and AdaptationTypeValue is related to accessModeValue. The relationship between terms in adaptationTypeValue and terms in accessModeValue is further discussed in Appendix B of the best practice guide [AfABPIG, 12].

3               Information Model

The Platform Independent Model (PIM) for the Access_For_All_User data model [2] is shown in Figure 3.1.

The complete data model is described in the tables that follow.

Figure 3.1 Access_For_All_User   class diagram.


Table 3.1 The 'AccessforAll' abstract root class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

Access_For_All_User

Class type

Container

Source

N/A

Properties

[ accessForAllUser ]

Description

An abstract class used to indicate that the root ‘Access_For_All_User’ of the data model is the attribute accessForAllUser.

Table 3.2 Description of the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

Access_For_All_User

Class type

Container

Source

Root

Properties

[ accessModeRequired, adaptationTypeRequired, atInteroperable, educationalComplexityOfAdaptation, hazardAvoidance, inputRequirements, languageOfAdaptation, languageOfInterface, adaptationDetailRequired, adaptationMediaRequired, educationalLevelOfAdaptation, extension ], unordered

Description

A collection of information that states how a user prefers digital learning resources to be supplied.


3.1          AccessModeRequired Attribute Description

Table 3.3 The 'accessModeRequired' attribute for the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

accessModeRequired

Data type

AccessModeRequired (see sub-section 3.13 of this document).

Value space

Container.

Multiplicity

[0 ..unbounded ], unordered

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

Access mode that a user seeks either in an adaptation or an original resource as a replacement for a different access mode.

Notes

This attribute relates an “existingAccessMode” to an access mode that the user prefers, called an “adaptationRequest.”

The example of

accessModeRequired.existingAccessMode   = visual

accessModeRequired .adaptationRequest = textual

expresses this statement: “Resources that are visual should be replaced by an adaptation that is textual.”


3.2          AdaptationTypeRequired Attribute Description

Table 3.4 The 'adaptationTypeRequired' attribute for the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

adaptationTypeRequired

Data type

AdaptationTypeRequired (see sub-section 3.14 of this document).

Value space

Container.

Multiplicity

[0 ..unbounded ], unordered

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

Nature or genre of the adaptation required as a replacement for a specific access mode.

Notes

This attribute relates an “existingAccessMode” to an adaptation type that the user prefers, called an “adaptationRequest.”

The example of

adaptationTypeRequired.existingAccessMode   = visual

adaptationTypeRequired.adaptationRequest = audioDescription

expresses this statement: “Resources that are visual should be replaced by audio description.”


3.3          AtInteroperable Attribute Description

Table 3.5 The 'atInteroperable' attribute for the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

atInteroperable

Data type

Boolean (see Table A1.1).

Value space

Š        False – denotes that the user does not require assistive technologies support;

Š        True – denotes that the user does require assistive technologies support.

Multiplicity

[0 .. 1]

Linguistic Indicator

Non-linguistic

Description

A preference for resources that are compatible with assistive technologies.

Notes

Resources that are interoperable with AT should be selected whenever possible. Interoperability is indicated by compliance with WCAG   2.0 checkpoints: 1.1.1, 1.3.1, 1.3.2, 2.4.4, 3.1.1, 3.1.2, 3.3.2, 4.1.1 and 4.1.2.The specific details of the AT are normally provided by a user agent or the operating system. The example of ‘atInteroperable= true’ expresses this statement: “Resources that are interoperable with AT should be selected whenever possible”.

3.4            EducationalComplexityOfAdaptation Attribute Description

Table 3.6 The 'educationalComplexityOfAdaptation' attribute for the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

educationalComplexityOfAdaptation

Data type

EducationalComplexityValue (see sub-section 2.8 in AfA DES [AfADES, 12]).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0 .. 1]

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

A preference for a resource that is simplified or enriched relative to another resource that presents the same intellectual content.

Notes

The example of ‘educationalComplexityOfAdaptation= simplified’ expresses this statement: “Resources that are presented in a simplified form should be selected whenever possible.”

3.5          HazardAvoidance Attribute Description

Table 3.7 The'hazardAvoidance' attribute for the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

hazardAvoidance

Data type

HazardValue (see sub-section 2.9 in AfA DES [AfADES, 12]).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0 ..unbounded ], unordered

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

A resource having such a characteristic should not be delivered to a user with this preference.

Notes

The example of ‘hazardAvoidance= flashing’ expresses this statement: “Resources that include flashing visuals should never be presented.”

3.6            InputRequirements Attribute Description

Table 3.8 The 'inputRequirements' attribute for the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

inputRequirements

Data type

ControlFlexibilityValue (see sub-section 2.6 in AfA DES [AfADES, 12]).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0 .. 1]

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

Single input system that is sufficient to control a resource.

Notes

The example of ‘inputRequirements= fullKeyboardControl’ expresses this statement: “Resources that are fully usable with keyboard control should be selected whenever possible.”


3.7          LanguageOfAdaptation Attribute Description

Table 3.9 The 'languageOfAdaptation' attribute for the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

languageOfAdaptation

Data type

NormalizedString

Value space

See Table A1.1.

Multiplicity

[0 ..unbounded ], unordered

Linguistic Indicator

Non-linguistic

Description

A preference for the language of the adaptation [RFC4646].

Notes

The example of ‘languageOfAdaptation= spa’ expresses this statement: “Resources in Spanish should be selected whenever possible”.

3.8            LanguageOfInterface Attribute Description

Table 3.10 The 'languageOfInterface' attribute for the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

languageOfInterface

Data type

NormalizedString

Value space

See Table A1.1.

Multiplicity

[0 ..unbounded ], unordered

Linguistic Indicator

Non-linguistic

Description

A preference for the language of the user interface [RFC4646].

Notes

The example of ‘languageOfInterface= spa’ expresses this statement: “User interfaces should be presented in Spanish whenever possible.”


3.9          AdaptationDetailRequired Attribute Description

Table 3.11 The 'adaptationDetailRequired' attribute for the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

adaptationDetailRequired

Data type

AdaptationDetailRequired (see sub-section 3.15 of this document).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0 ..unbounded ], unordered

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

Fine detail of one or more required adaptation types.

Notes

This attribute relates an “existingAccessMode” to an adaptation detail that the user prefers, called an “adaptationRequest.”

The example of

adaptationDetailRequired.existingAccessMode = auditory

adaptationDetailRequired.adaptationRequest = verbatim

expresses this statement: “Resources that are auditory should be replaced by verbatim alternatives.”

Comment on the relationship between this attribute and its terms, and the other attributes and their terms, is especially invited.


3.10       AdaptationMediaRequired Attribute Description

Table 3.12 The 'adaptationMediaRequired' attribute for the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

adaptationMediaRequired

Data type

AdaptationMediaRequired (see sub-section 3.16 of this document).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0 ..unbounded ], unordered

Linguistic Indicator

Non-linguistic

Description

Requirement for a particular type of media.

Notes

This attribute relates an “existingAccessMode” to an adaptation media that the user prefers, called an “adaptationRequest.”

The example of

adaptationMediaRequired.existingAccessMode = textual

adaptationMediaRequired.adaptationRequest = NIMAS

expresses this statement: “Resources that are textual should be replaced by NIMAS-based alternatives.”

Comment on the relationship between this attribute and its terms, and the other attributes and their terms, is especially invited.


3.11       EducationalLevelOfAdaptation Attribute Description

Table 3.13 The 'educationalLevelOfAdaptation' attribute for the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

educationalLevelOfAdaptation

Data type

NormalizedString

Value space

See Table A1.1.

Multiplicity

[0 .. *], unordered

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

A preference for the education level of the adaptation.

Notes

The example of ‘educationalLevelOfAdaptation=Grade5’ expresses this statement: “Resources that match education level Grade 5 should be selected whenever possible” when used in conjunction with the ASN Educational Level Vocabulary.

3.12       Extension Attribute Description

Table 3.14 The 'extension' attribute for the Access_For_All_User class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

extension

Data type

Unspecified

Value space

Defined in terms of how the Information Model is realized by a binding.

Multiplicity

[0 ..unbounded ], unordered

Linguistic Indicator

N/A

Description

This is a placeholder. It informs bindings of this Information Model as to the valid locations for the inclusion that extend the parent class.

Notes

The form of the extension is dependent on the type of binding.


3.13       AccessModeRequired Class Description

The PIM for the ‘AccessModeRequired ’ class is shown in Figure 3.1.

Table 3.15 Description of the 'AccessModeRequired' class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

AccessModeRequired

Class type

Container

Source

Access_For_All_User

Properties

[ existingAccessMode, adaptationRequest ]

Description

The container for the domain space and range space information for this class.

Notes

3.13.1        ‘ExistingAccessMode ’ Attribute Description

Table 3.16 The 'existingAccessMode' attribute for the AccessModeRequired class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

existingAccessMode

Data type

AccessModeValue (see sub-section 2.2 in AfA DES [AfADES, 12]).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

The domain space for the ‘AccessModeRequired’ class.


3.13.2      ‘AdaptationRequest ’ Attribute Description

Table 3.17 The 'adaptationRequest' attribute for the AccessModeRequired class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

adaptationRequest

Data type

AccessModeValue (see sub-section 2.2 in AfA DES [AfADES, 12]).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

The value space for the ‘AccessModeRequired’ class.

3.14       AdaptationTypeRequired Class Description

The PIM for the ‘AdaptationTypeRequired’ class is shown in Figure 3.1.

Table 3.18 Description of the 'AdaptationTypeRequired' class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

AdaptationTypeRequired

Class type

Container

Source

Access_For_All_User

Properties

[ existingAccessMode, adaptationRequest ]

Description

The container for the domain space and range space information for this class.

Notes

This attribute uses different vocabularies for its domain and range.


3.14.1      ‘ExistingAccessMode ’ Attribute Description

Table 3.19 The 'existingAccessMode' attribute for the AdaptationTypeRequired class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

existingAccessMode

Data type

AccessModeValue (see sub-section 2.2 in AfA DES [AfADES, 12]).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

The domain space for the ‘AdapationTypeRequired’ class.

3.14.2        ‘AdaptationRequest ’ Attribute Description

Table 3.20 The 'adaptationRequest' attribute for the AdaptationTypeRequired class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

adaptationRequest

Data type

AdaptationTypeValue (see sub-section 2.5 in AfA DES [AfADES, 12]).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

The value space for the ‘AdaptationTypeRequired’ class.


3.15       AdaptationDetailRequired Class Description

The PIM for the ‘AdaptationDetailRequired’ class is shown in Figure 3.1.

Table 3.21 Description of the 'AdaptationDetailRequired' class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

AdaptationDetailRequired

Class type

Container

Source

Access_For_All_User

Properties

[ existingAccessMode, adaptationRequest ]

Description

The container for the domain space and range space information for this class.

Notes

This attribute uses different vocabularies for its domain and range.

Comment on the relationship between this attribute and its terms, and the other attributes and their terms, is especially invited.

3.15.1        ‘ExistingAccessMode ’ Attribute Description

Table 3.22 The 'existingAccessMode' attribute for the AdaptationDetailRequired class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

existingAccessMode

Data type

AccessModeValue (see sub-section 2.2 in AfA DES [AfADES, 12]).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

The domain space for the ‘AdapationDetailRequired’ class.


3.15.2      ‘AdaptationRequest ’ Attribute Description

Table 3.23 The 'adaptationRequest' attribute for the AdaptationDetailRequired class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

adaptationRequest

Data type

AdaptationDetailValue (see sub-section 2.4 in AfA DES [AfADES, 12]).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

The value space for the ‘AdaptationDetailRequired’   class.

3.16       AdaptationMediaRequired Class Description

The PIM for the ‘AdaptationMediaRequired’ class is shown in Figure 3.1.

Table 3.24 Description of the 'AdaptationMediaRequired' class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

AdaptationMediaRequired

Class type

Container

Source

Access_For_All_User

Properties

[ existingAccessMode, adaptationRequest ]

Description

The container for the domain space and range space information for this class.

Notes

This attribute uses different vocabularies for its domain and range.

Comment on the relationship between this attribute and its terms, and the other attributes and their terms, is especially invited.


3.16.1      ‘ExistingAccessMode ’ Attribute Description

Table 3.25 The 'existingAccessMode' attribute for the AdaptationMediaRequired class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

existingAccessMode

Data type

AccessModeValue (see sub-section 2.2 in AfA DES [AfADES, 12]).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

The domain space for the ‘AdapationMediaRequired’ class.

3.16.2        ‘AdaptationRequest ’ Attribute Description

Table 3.26 The 'adaptationRequest' attribute for the AdaptationMediaRequired class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

adaptationRequest <

Data type

AdaptationMediaTypeValue (see sub-section 2.3 in AfA DES [AfADES, 12]).

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Linguistic Indicator

Linguistic

Description

The value space for the ‘AdaptationDetailRequired’   class.

4               Extending the Specification

The specification may only be extended as permitted in the information model. The form of the extension is dependent on the binding being used (see the corresponding binding documentation and best practice recommendations [AfA, 12a]).

The value space for each of the vocabularies is approved by IMS Global. The value space for a vocabulary may be extended. Such extensions may be created and used only when no approved IMS Global value satisfies the expressive need of an implementing community to define the shape of a collection.

5               Conformance

The requirements for conformance to the AfA PNP specification are dependent on the function or role played by the conformant technology or application.

Education delivery applications, agents or systems are conformant to this part of the Access For All Specification when they gather and/or process Personal Needs and Preferences statements.

Alternative access systems are conformant to this part of Access For All Specification when they respond to the generic elements of this standard that apply to the specific class of alternative access systems to which the system belongs e.g. screen readers would respond to screen reader elements. In general, conformance will be to a profile of the specification. The associated conformance requirements are described in the corresponding profile documentation.

Appendix A – The IMS UML Profile Notation

The AfA PNP Information Models are expressed using the standard IMS Global representation in the Unified Modeling Language (UML).   Classes in this information model are classified into one of four stereotypes. These abstractions are bound to specific data structures for machine processing in the associated bindings. The abstract class types are:

Š        Container: A container class may be an association parent of one or more association child classes. The ‘Unordered’ container does not require the order of the contained attributes to be maintained, the ‘Sequence’ container denotes information whose order must be maintained and the ‘Selection’ container denotes a selection of the contained attributes;

Š        RequirementRelationship : A container for a class that defines the domain (existingAccessMode) and range (adaptationRequest) of the associated attribute. In this specification both the domain and range are an enumerated vocabulary;

Š        Value: A value class shall only be a attribute of primitive type. That is, it shall not be a composite of container, value, or unspecified class types. A value class shall always be a child of a container class and shall have semantic value within the scope of its parent class’s semantic value;

Š        PrimitiveType: This is a class that is used to denote a basic data-type for the specification;

Š        Unspecified: An unspecified class may be a parent. An unspecified class serves as an extension point for this Information Model.

Table A1.1 Class and Attribute descriptors

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

The name given to the class being described.

Class type

The abstract class type of this class.

Data type (Range)

For value classes, the allowed structure for valid values for the class. Valid data types are:

Boolean: The primitive, two-valued data type that uses the keywords “true” and “false” to indicate the logical state of an object.

NormalizedString: A sequence of printable characters that does not contain carriage returns or tabs. There is no length constraint.

Value space (Domain)

The range of valid values for this class. If the value space is unspecified, it is not known or is not important. This value space must be defined in terms of the associated data-type.

Multiplicity

A property of a class indicating the number of times it may be used or appear in a given parent context. The values of this property are expressed as a range or shorthand for a range using this notation:

  • ‘0 .. 1’ [optional; restricted]
  • ‘0 ..unbounded’ [optional; unrestricted]
  • ‘1 .. 1’ [mandatory; restricted]
  • ‘1 ..unbounded’ [mandatory; unrestricted]

Multiplicities may also appear in short-hand notation in the UML models. The short-hand equivalents shall be (exclusive of bracketed comments):

  • ‘*’ [ optional ; unrestricted]
  • ‘1’ [mandatory; restricted]
  • ‘1 .. *’ [ mandatory ; unrestricted]

Where multiplicity is greater than one, the importance of the ordering of siblings is also indicated by appending either “,”ordered or “,” unordered.

ordered specifies a sequence of siblings as listed, unordered specifies a collection or bag of siblings for which the order is not important.

Linguistic Indicator

Š        Linguistic.

Š        Non-linguistic.

Scope

The scope of the attribute is define as either:

Š        ‘-‘ denotes local;

Š        ‘+’ denotes global.

The appropriate symbol precedes the name of the attribute.

Source

Lists classes that may be parents of this class.

Properties

Lists the possible child classes of this class in the form “[” child *“,” child “]”. One or more child classes may be expressed within square brackets. Each child class shall be separated by a comma .

Where more than one child is listed, the importance of the ordering of siblings is also indicated by appending either “,”ordered or “,” unordered.

ordered specifies a sequence of siblings as listed. unordered specifies a collection or bag of sibling for which the order is not important.

Description

Contains descriptions relating to the class and its values space.

Notes

Supporting information.

In general, this specification does not define the ways in which an end system must be realized. However, the required interoperability behavior requires that an end system have certain characteristics. The static properties of these characteristics are defined in this Section, including:

Š        When an attribute has a multiplicity of ‘1 .. 1’, an end system must be capable of supporting one instance;

Š        When an attribute has a multiplicity of ‘1 .. *’, an end system must be capable of supporting at least one instance. The specification will also define the smallest permitted maximum number of instances that must also be supported by the end system;

Š        When an attribute has a multiplicity of ‘0 .. 1’, an end system should support a single instance;

Š        When an attribute has a multiplicity of ‘0 .. *’, the specification will define the smallest permitted maximum number of instances that must also be supported by the end system.

About This Document

Title:                                         IMS Global Access For All Personal Needs & Preferences (PNP ) Specification Information Model

Editor:                                       Colin Smythe (IMS Global)

Co-chairs:                                  Madeleine Rothberg (WGBH) and Richard Schwerdtfeger (IBM)

Version:                                     3.0

Version Date :                              13 September 2012

Release :                                      1.0

Status:                                       Public Draft

Summary:                                  This document contains the IMS Global Access For All Personal Needs & Preferences Specification Information Model v3.0. This part of the Access For All specification provides a description of a learner’s functional abilities and the assistive technology or other non-standard technology in use as well as other user preferences.

Revision Information:                 This version supersedes the IMS Global Access For All v2.0 specification. This document contains the information model description for the Access for All Personal Needs & Preferences.

Purpose :                                    This document is made available for adoption by the public community at large.

Document Location:                    http://www.imsglobal.org/accessibility/

List of Contributors

The following individuals contributed to the development of this document: