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IMS Question and Test Interoperability Meta-data and Usage Data

Version 2.0 Final Specification

 

Copyright © 2005 IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The IMS Logo is a registered trademark of IMS/GLC.
Document Name: IMS Question and Test Interoperability Meta-data and Usage Data
Revision: 24 January 2005


 

 

Date Issued: 24 January 2005

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. References
3. New meta-data elements in IMS QTI v2.0
4. IEEE LOM Profile
4.1. General
4.1.1. identifier
4.1.2. title
4.1.3. language
4.1.4. description
4.1.5. keyword
4.1.6. coverage
4.2. Lifecycle
4.2.1. version
4.2.2. status
4.2.3. contribute
4.3. meta_metadata
4.3.1. identifier
4.3.2. contribute
4.3.3. metadata_schema
4.3.4. language
4.4. Technical
4.4.1. format
4.4.2. size
4.4.3. location
4.4.4. Other Platform Requirements
4.5. Educational
4.5.1. learning_resource_type
4.5.2. Context
4.5.3. typical_learning_time
4.5.4. description
4.5.5. language
4.6. Rights
4.6.1. cost
4.6.2. copyright_and_other_restrictions
4.6.3. description
4.7. Annotation
4.8. Classification
5. Usage Data
5.1. Vocabulary for the Exchange of Item Statistics
6. XML Binding

1. Introduction

Previous versions of the IMS QTI specification had a specific meta-data set contained within the data structures themselves, i.e. the ASI. That meta-data vocabulary had its own set of names, all of which started with the characters 'qmd_'.

In QTI version 2.0, QTI-specific meta-data has been brought into line with the IEEE LOM in accordance with the IMS Meta-data Best Practice and Implementation Guide for [LOM]. The IEEE LOM standard defines a set of meta-data elements that can be used to describe learning resources, but does not describe assessment resources in sufficient detail. The application profile provided in this document therefore extends the IEEE LOM to meet the specific needs of QTI developers wishing to associate meta-data with items (as defined by the accompanying Item Information Model).

2. References

IMS_MD_Binding
IMS Learning Resource Meta-Data XML Binding, Version 1.2.1
LOM
IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 Standard for Learning Object Meta-data (LOM)
RDN
RDN/LTSN resource type vocabulary
http://www.rdn.ac.uk/publications/rdn-ltsn/types/

3. New meta-data elements in IMS QTI v2.0

The IEEE LOM permits extensions to be made to the conceptual data schema, in the form of new terms for existing vocabularies, new vocabularies for existing elements or new elements, which may be inserted into the schema provided they do not subvert the existing chain of references or introduce new data types for existing fields.

It should be noted that extensions are community specific and will impact significantly on the interoperability of the meta-data which contains them.

Secondary meta-data, sometimes known as 'usage data' (item statistics), is defined separately in its own data model. See Usage Data later in this document.

The following class describes a new category of meta-data for the recording of QTI specific information. It is designed to be treated as an additional top-level category to augment the LOM profile described in the next section.

Class : qtiMetadata

Contains : itemTemplate boolean [0..1]
True if the item is actually an item template, in other words, the item changes its appearance based on some random or external factor. An assessmentItem that contains a templateProcessing section.

Contains : timeDependent boolean [0..1]
Whether or not the item is time dependent. A time dependent item takes the length of time taken for an attempt into consideration when scoring.

Contains : composite boolean [0..1]
True if the item comprises more than one interaction, for example, an assessmentItem that contains more than one interaction.

Contains : interactionType [*]
The interaction type(s) of the item. The vocabulary is comprised of the names, as defined in the information model, of the leaf classes derived from interaction.

Contains : feedbackType [0..1]
Describes the type of feedback, if any, available in the item. If feedback is available then it is described as being non-adaptive or adaptive depending on whether the item is itself adaptive. A non-adaptive item generates feedback based on the responses submitted as part of (the last) attempt only. An adaptive item generates feedback that takes into consideration the path taken through the item, in other words, feedback based on the accumulation of all attempts and not just the last.

Contains : solutionAvailable boolean [0..1]
Set to true if a model solution is available for the item. For example, an assessmentItem that provides correct responses for all declared responseVariables.

Contains : toolName string256 [0..1]
The name of the tool used to author the evaluation object.

Contains : toolVersion string256 [0..1]
The version of the tool used to author the evaluation object.

Contains : toolVendor string256 [0..1]
The company which produced the tool used to author the evaluation object.

Enumeration: feedbackType

none
No feedback is available.

nonadaptive
Feedback is available but it is non-adaptive. In other words, the item is a non-adaptive item.

adaptive
Feedback is available and is adaptive. In other words, the item is an adaptive item.

Enumeration: interactionType

associateInteraction

choiceInteraction

customInteraction

drawingInteraction

endAttemptInteraction

extendedTextInteraction

gapMatchInteraction

graphicAssociateInteraction

graphicGapMatchInteraction

graphicOrderInteraction

hotspotInteraction

hottextInteraction

inlineChoiceInteraction

matchInteraction

orderInteraction

positionObjectInteraction

selectPointInteraction

sliderInteraction

textEntryInteraction

uploadInteraction

4. IEEE LOM Profile

This LOM profile deprecates use of the relation category when creating meta-data instances for QTI items, it is reserved for future use.

4.1. General

Note that the LOM-defined Structure and AggregationLevel fields are not recommended by this profile.

4.1.1. identifier

One of the values given for the identifier must have an entry that matches the associated item's identifier.

4.1.2. title

The title must have a value that matches the value of the associated item's title attribute. The language used to interpret the title is taken from the associated item's lang attribute.

4.1.3. language

There must be one value for each of the languages referred to by the language attributes on the associated assessmentItem and its bodyElements.

4.1.4. description

When transforming item meta-data records with no description into systems that require a value for this field, the item's title should be used to set the value of the description.

4.1.5. keyword

When transforming item meta-data records with no keywords into systems that require a value for this field, the item's title should be used to derive a set of keywords.

4.1.6. coverage

Usage as defined by [LOM].

4.2. Lifecycle

4.2.1. version

See comment in status below for important information about the use of this field.

4.2.2. status

It is anticipated that systems for handling items would prefer to draw from wider vocabularies than the one defined by [LOM]. However, in order to facilitate the transformation of meta-data instances to systems that require the use of the LOM vocabulary for this field it is recommended that the version is used to achieve the tracking of items through more complex production processes.

4.2.3. contribute

Usage as defined by [LOM].

4.3. meta_metadata

4.3.1. identifier

A globally unique label that identifies this meta-data record.

4.3.2. contribute

Usage as defined by [LOM].

4.3.3. metadata_schema

meta-data records that adhere to this profile are conforming LOM instances, therefore references to both this specification and LOM are applicable. The appropriate references are IMSQTIv2.0 and LOMv1.0. References to other schemas to which the meta-data instance conforms are also permitted.

4.3.4. language

There are two approaches to providing multilingual information in LOM-based meta-data records which can be used separately or in combination. The first is to translate the meta-data on a field-by-field basis providing each field value as a set of strings, each individually language tagged. The alternative is to generate multiple equivalent meta-data records and use this language field (on the meta-meta-data category) to set the default language for the whole record. This profile prefers the latter approach, meta-data records conforming to this profile should not provide multilingual values to individual fields within the record.

4.4. Technical

Note that the LOM-defined Requirement, Installation Remarks and Duration fields are not recommended by this profile.

4.4.1. format

There should be at least one instance of format with the value text/x-imsqti-item-xml

4.4.2. size

Usage as defined by [LOM].

4.4.3. location

Usage as defined by [LOM].

4.4.4. Other Platform Requirements

Usage as defined by [LOM].

4.5. Educational

Note that the LOM-defined Interactivity Type, Interactivity Level, Semantic Density, Intended End User Role, Typical Age Range and Difficulty fields are not recommended by this profile.

4.5.1. learning_resource_type

QTI items are designed to be reusable in a variety of assessment scenarios. Therefore, the LOM-defined values self assessment and exam are forbidden. If the standard LOM vocabulary is used then only the values exercise or questionnaire should be used to describe an item. An alternative vocabulary for this field has been defined in [RDN], when using that vocabulary the value AssessmentItem is recommended.

4.5.2. Context

This is used to provide an educational context for the value given in typical learning time.

4.5.3. typical_learning_time

In the context of a QTI item, the typical learning time is interpreted as the length of time the candidate would normally be allocated to complete the item. It is not a time limit, however, when building a time-limited test from an item bank the typical learning times of the selected items may be added together to estimate the expected duration of the test and used to calculate a time limit for the test if required.

4.5.4. description

Item objectives should be included in this field if required.

4.5.5. language

Usage as defined by [LOM].

4.6. Rights

Note that the LOM-defined cost and copyright_and_other_restrictions fields are highly problematic, and that a more detailed rights description language is necessary to adequately express the often complex rights issues surrounding resource creation and reuse. However, the vast majority of application profiles mandate the rights category, and it is therefore recommended for use within this application profile.

4.6.1. cost

Usage as defined by [LOM].

4.6.2. copyright_and_other_restrictions

Usage as defined by [LOM].

4.6.3. description

Usage as defined by [LOM].

4.7. Annotation

Usage as defined by [LOM].

4.8. Classification

Usage as defined by [LOM].

5. Usage Data

Class : usageData

Usage data, most commonly item statistics, do not form part of an assessmentItem directly because they always relate to some context or domain in which the statistics are valid. Therefore, this specification defines a separate class for describing these statistics.

Each statistic refers to both its context and to the assessmentItem(s) it relates to. Therefore, instances of this class are bound and packaged separately for interoperability.

Attribute : glossary [0..1]: uri
An optional URI that identifies the default glossary in which the names of the itemStatistics are defined.

Contains : itemStatistic [*]

Abstract class : itemStatistic

Derived classes:
categorizedStatistic, ordinaryStatistic
Associated classes:
usageData

A value or set of values that describe the performance of the item within a specific context. Common measures include the item's difficulty and how well it discriminates between various candidate ability levels

Attribute : name [1]: identifier
The unique identifier of the item statistic. Glossaries of identifiers defined by this specification for commonly used item and distractor statistics are defined and should be used where possible. See Vocabulary for the Exchange of Item Statistics for more details.

Attribute : glossary [0..1]: uri
An optional URI that identifies the glossary in which the name is defined. This value overrides any default glossary provided by the glossary attribute of the parent usageData.

Attribute : context [1]: uri
A Uniform Resource Identifier that points to information about the context within which the item statistic was created. For example, the URI may point to the sample of item scores and the specifics of computations that created item statistics. The URI may be a URL, a database index, or other valid identifier

Attribute : caseCount [0..1]: integer
The number of cases in the sample used to create the item statistic.

Attribute : stdError [0..1]: float
The standard error of the item statistic, also known as the variance.

Attribute : stdDeviation [0..1]: float
The standard deviation of the item statistic (i.e. the square root of the standard error).

Attribute : lastUpdated [0..1]: date
Date of the last update to the item statistic value.

Contains : targetObject [1..*]

Class : targetObject

Associated classes:
itemStatistic

The targetObject is used to refer to an assessment object. This object may be an assessmentItem or some other type of object defined outside the scope of this specification, for example, an entire test. In some cases it is desirable to refer not just to the assessment object but to a specific part of that object, in which case the optional partIdentifier can be used.

Attribute : identifier [1]: string
The identifier of the assessmentItem or other target object.

Attribute : partIdentifier [0..1]: identifier
An optional identifier to a specific part (e.g. an itemVariable) defined within the assessment object. In the case of an assessmentItem the partIdentifier typically refers to an outcomeVariable but can refer to other objects identified in the same namespace, such as a specific choice within an interaction. If no partIdentifier is given the statistic is considered to refer to the target object as a whole.

Class : ordinaryStatistic (itemStatistic)

An item statistic that consists of a single numeric value.

Contains : value [1]

Class : categorizedStatistic (itemStatistic)

An item statistic that consists of multiple values, e.g. IRT Dispersion Parameters.

Contains : mapping [1]

5.1. Vocabulary for the Exchange of Item Statistics

This specification defines a vocabulary to aid the exchange of commonly used statistics. The vocabulary is split into two glossaries.

Item Statistics
glossaries/item_statistics.xml

The main item statistics glossary defines statistics that refer to a specific outcome of an item (typically the outcome variable SCORE).

Distractor Statistics
glossaries/distractor_statistics.xml

The distractor statistics glossary defines statistics that refer to a specific response (typically a simpleChoice) within an item.

6. XML Binding

The accompanying XML binding provides a binding for the qtiMetadata object that is consistent with the binding given in [IMS_MD_Binding]. The qtiMetadata class defines a new category that could appear alongside LOM categories such as General, Lifecycle, etc. In the context of the IMS binding, that means it would naturally appear as a direct descendant of the <lom> object itself. The IMS binding does not support extension at this point in the XML binding, however, so qtiMetadata is bound separately and must be used in parallel to the lom object as an additional meta-data object.

At the time of writing, the IEEE itself is working on a binding document for [LOM]. In the future, an XML binding more consistent with the approach taken by the IEEE is expected to be recommended.



About This Document

 

Title IMS Question and Test Interoperability Meta-data and Usage Data
Editor Steve Lay (University of Cambridge)
Version 2.0
Version Date 24 January 2005
Status Final Specification
Summary This document describes the QTI Meta-data and Usage Data specification.
Revision Information 24 January 2005
Purpose This document has been approved by the IMS Technical Board and is made available for adoption.
Document Location http://www.imsglobal.org/question/qti_v2p0/imsqti_mdudv2p0.html

 

 

 

To register any comments or questions about this specification please visit: http://www.imsglobal.org/developers/ims/imsforum/categories.cfm?catid=23

 

 

List of Contributors

The following individuals contributed to the development of this document:

 

Name Organization Name Organization
Niall Barr CETIS Joshua Marks McGraw-Hill
Sam Easterby-Smith Canvas Learning David Poor McGraw-Hill
Jeanne Ferrante ETS Greg Quirus ETS
Pierre Gorissen SURF Niall Sclater CETIS
Regina Hoag ETS Colin Smythe IMS
Christian Kaefer McGraw-Hill GT Springer Texas Instruments
John Kleeman Question Mark Colin Tattersall OUNL
Steve Lay UCLES Rowin Young CETIS
Jez Lord Canvas Learning    

Revision History

 

Version No. Release Date Comments
Base Document 2.0 09 March 2004 The first version of the QTI Item v2.0 specification.
Public Draft 2.0 07 June 2004 The Public Draft version 2.0 of the QTI Item Specification.
Final 2.0 24 January 2005 The Final version 2.0 of the QTI specification.

 

 

 

IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. ("IMS/GLC") is publishing the information contained in this IMS Question and Test Interoperability Meta-data and Usage Data ("Specification") for purposes of scientific, experimental, and scholarly collaboration only.

IMS/GLC makes no warranty or representation regarding the accuracy or completeness of the Specification.
This material is provided on an "As Is" and "As Available" basis.

The Specification is at all times subject to change and revision without notice.

It is your sole responsibility to evaluate the usefulness, accuracy, and completeness of the Specification as it relates to you.

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Please refer to Document Name:
IMS Question and Test Interoperability Meta-data and Usage Data Revision: 24 January 2005