Question and Test Interoperability Terms and Definitions

Question and Test Interoperability Terms and Definitions

IMS Candidate Final Public
Version 3.0
IMS Candidate Final Public
Date Issued: 20 July 2020
Status: This document is for review and adoption by the IMS membership.
This version: https://www.imsglobal.org/spec/qti/v3p0/terms/

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Abstract

This document contains the commonly used terms and definitions used across the The Question & Test Interoperability® (QTI®) v3 specification document set.

1. Introduction

Many of the terms in this document are used in the Question and Test Interoperability® (QTI®) version 3.0 specification and the definitions provided herein establish precision about their meaning and intended use. While some of the terms are specifically intended for an assessment context, others are more general and may refer to the more general "user" instead of the assessment specific "candidate". These terms are important for QTI 3 delivery systems (as well as authoring systems), which may need to provide specific accessibility or accommodation supports for candidates. Further detail about meeting a candidate's support needs can be found in Section 5 of the QTI 3 Best Practices & Implementation Guide. Where the implementation details are left unspecified or generic, it is understood that implementing systems have discretion as to how to meet the support need.

Within the definitions for this document, the definitions may be for particular contexts. Those contexts precede the definition abbreviated, in bold, followed by a colon. Those contexts are:

  • Term: Used to differentiate between the more general definition of the term and the other possible contexts.
  • PNP: How the term is used in the context of a Personal Needs and Preferences (PNP).
  • DRD: How the term is used in the context of a Digital Resource Description, which is an aspect of the Access for All standard.
  • QTI 3: How the term is used specifically for QTI 3.

Where no context is provided, the definition is assumed to be the general definition of the term.

2. Terms and Definitions

[ISO-639-2]
An ISO certified list of language codes that use two letters to indicate a specific language.
[ISO-639-3]
An ISO certified list of language codes that use three letters to indicate a specific language. The 639-3 set includes sign languages.
Access for All
The IMS standard for accessibility, which promotes an inclusive user experience by enabling the matching of the characteristics of resources to the needs and preferences of individual users. In circumstances where resources might not be suitable for all users, it enables the discovery of other appropriate resources. Access For All is an approach to accessibility that emphasizes personalization by providing support for systems of transformable, flexible resources that each meet different needs. (https://www.imsglobal.org/activity/accessibility)
Activate-as-option-set
PNP: The term "activate-as-option-set" is a set of user preferences in a PNP. Assigning a feature or support to this set indicates that each feature should be made available to the user as an option to use, but the feature is not activated (the feature isn't actively in use) until requested by the user. A method for making the feature available to the user should be obvious, like (but not limited to) a button on a toolbar, an item in a drop down menu, or an option in an options window.
Activate-at-initialization-set
PNP: The term "activate-at-initialization-set" is a set of user preferences in a PNP. Assigning a feature or support to this set indicates that each feature should be made available to the user as soon as the user initiates their working session (generally after logging into a content presentation system).
Adaptive item
See item.
Adaptive test
Adaptive testing, commonly referred to as computer adaptive testing (CAT), successively selects questions presented to a candidate taking a test for the purpose of maximizing the precision of the test based on what a system knows about the candidate and how the candidate performed on previous questions.
Additional directions
Term: Provides supplemental content that contains additional directions. Generally used as a cognitive support for some users that might benefit from some additional context, or specific guidance on how they might proceed through the content/problem/interaction. Note that this is distinct from keyboard directions, or directions for a specific support (like screen-reader).
PNP: The term "additional-directions" indicates a user's preference that additional directions be provided to the user if available.
Additional testing time
Term: If a project or assessment has a time limit, the candidate will be allowed additional time (unlimited extra time or specific additional amounts) to complete the project or assessment.
PNP: The term "additional-testing-time" indicates a user's preference that they require additional testing time. The amount of time can be indicated as "unlimited" (the default setting), or by indicating a fixed amount of additional time, or by indicating a time multiplier (where there is an assumed set amount of time for the assessment).
AfA
IMS Access for All specification. (https://www.imsglobal.org/activity/accessibility
Alternate representation
Specifies an alternate way of displaying content to facilitate the user's access to the content. As an example, a text-based description of a figure displaying a life cycle might be provided, or an animation that represents a series of events described in text might be provided.
Alternative text
Term: Text that is programmatically associated with non-text content and that serves the equivalent purpose (from WCAG 2.0, http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#text-altdef). Adding alternative text to an image is commonly done by using the alt attribute on an image (<img>) tag. It is intended to be a short description of the object. If the description is lengthy, or requires formatting of any kind, the object may also need a long description.
PNP: The feature "alternative-text" indicates a user's preference to have access to any alternative text.
AMD
The Asynchronous Module Definition (AMD) API specifies a mechanism for defining Javascript modules such that the module and its dependencies can be asynchronously loaded.
Answer masking
Term: By default, choices for items with choice interactions are covered (visually hidden) when the item is first presented to the candidate. The candidate has the ability to remove the mask(s) at a time of their choosing. This feature is generally used as a cognitive support, as a test-taking strategy, to enable candidates to think of the correct response before being presented with the answer choices.
PNP: The term "answer-masking" indicates a user's preference that they should have this feature enabled/activated for all choice interactions when they begin their testing session. Users (candidates) should still have the ability to de-activate the feature during their testing session, with the ability to reactivate the feature at a time of their choosing.
AT
Assistive Technology. Hardware or software designed to accommodate a user's accessibility needs and access to learning.
Audio description
Term: Narration added to a soundtrack to describe important visual details that cannot be understood from the main soundtrack alone (from WCAG 2.0 http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#audiodescdef). Audio-descriptions can be useful for video-only media, or synchronized media (video & audio) content.
PNP: The term "audio-description" indicate a user's preference that they should be given audio descriptions for media containing video.
Basic calculator
Term: A general category of calculator, where only a minimum of functions are possible, including subtraction, addition, multiplication, and division.
QTI 3: In QTI 3 content, within companionMaterialsInfo, in the "calculator" term, use the type "basic" to indicate that the item requires the use of a basic (four-function) calculator. For QTI 3, the assumed functions are: Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide.
PNP: The term "basic" is a vocabulary of calculator-type parameters within the calculator-on-screen feature. Typically if this is included in a PNP, an onscreen basic calculator should be provided to an assessment candidate, even if calculators are usually prohibited for the item or assessment. It indicates an override of the usual business rules for the assessment.
Block interaction
A block interaction starts on a new line and takes up the full width available. Most interactions, except for inline interactions, are of this type. Block elements can contain inline elements, but not vis-a-versa. Block interactions are similar to block elements in HTML (e.g. elements which are display: block by default), and inline are similar to inline HTML elements. So a block interaction is expected to 'start a new line' on the page, and any elements which follow it would start on 'the line following the interaction', whereas an inline interaction will appear in the same flow as the preceding and subsequent elements.

Braille
Term: A tactile writing system generally used by people who are blind or visually impaired. The braille characters are represented by patterns of raised dots that are felt with fingertips. Braille can be created from ordinary text or from a preformatted braille file; it can be delivered with a refreshable braille display or in embossed braille.
PNP: The term "braille" indicates a user's preference that content be available to them in braille form. In AfA 3.0, the PNP allows for setting the specific delivery-mode of the braille support, using either the "refreshable" or embossed vocabularies. Refreshable is the default value.
Braille-type
DRD: a braille property that indicates which braille characters are used in the braille. Values include "ueb" (Unified English Braille), and "ebae" (English Braille American Edition). This property also allows for an extension to permit other braille types.
PNP: The term "braille-type" is a parameter of the braille support which indicates the type of braille characters that should be presented to the user.
Candidate
The person that is taking an assessment. Often used to differentiate between a generic user of a presentation system (which could be a proctor or administrator), and the actual candidates taking the assessment.
Captions
Term: Synchronized visual and/or text alternative for both speech and non-speech audio information needed to understand the media content (from WCAG2, http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#captionsdef).
PNP: The term "captions" indicates a user's preference that captions be provided automatically when audio-visual material is displayed.
Card
In a QTI 3 item which holds assessment content, a <card> is a data structure within a catalog which contains dormant HTML content or a resource reference for a specific support/feature. A card may also contain multiple cardEntry containers, each of which provides a different resource where an attribute on the cardEntry element declares the difference between the resources, and where the attribute value aligns with a specific preference/need from the candidate's PNP. For example, you might have multiple cardEntry nodes for different language versions for the keyword-translation support.
CASE
Competency Academic Standards Exchange: Used to associate item, section, test level learning and education competencies that can be exchanged with competency systems or frameworks.
CAT
Computer Adaptive Testing (see adaptive test)
Catalog
In an QTI 3 item file, a <catalog> is a container of content or resource references that is outside the itemBody node. A catalog holds support-specific dormant content that can be made active (a part of the perceivable content presented to the candidate) based on the candidate's PNP information. A catalog is referenced FROM a specific portion of the itemBody content by a specific, unique identifier, which matches the catalog's identifier. A catalog contains one or more cards, each of which address a specific support/feature.
CC
IMS Common Cartridge v1.3. A profile of IMS Content Packaging. (https://www.imsglobal.org/cc/ccv1p3/imscc_Implementation-v1p3.html)
Companion materials
Companion Materials are materials and tools that the candidate is expected to work with while interacting/responding to an item. These materials and tools may include an interactive widget, ruler, protractor, calculator, etc. The companion materials information is intended to be used by a test delivery interface to make the requisite materials or tools available when the item is presented to the candidate.
Computer read aloud
Term: A type of spoken interface that reads aloud text-based content, primarily through text-to-speech software technology. Computer read aloud is generally a tool provided for users who need large passages of text read aloud but are able to navigate the interface by sight, as opposed to screen-reader, which is a tool that provides access with audio to all areas of the interface in addition to passages of text.
PNP: The term "computer-read-aloud" is a vocabulary of the reading-type parameter within the spoken support. It indicates a user's preference that computer read aloud be provided during computer interactions. In an assessment, organizations may decide that other, non-text content should be read to computer-read-aloud users, or that some text-based content should NOT be read aloud to a computer-read-aloud user depending on organizational policy and the type of material being tested.
Construct
Term: in assessment, the specific topics or subject areas which are being measured in the assessment.
Content Packaging
The key exchange object defined in the IMS Content Packaging specification, also content package. (https://www.imsglobal.org/content/packaging/index.html)
Contrast
Used in QTI 3 as shorthand for "visual contrast," meaning the difference in values (greyscale) and colors between 2 or more visual objects. When the values are more similar, the contrast is considered to be "low" contrast. When the values have a large difference, the contrast is consider high contrast. The term "color contrast" is sometimes used to specify the difference in the hue and value (light and darkness) of the colors.
PNP: There are multiple ways in AfA 3.0 to indicate a candidate's visual contrast preferences, including: high-contrast, invert-polarity-display, text-appearance (font and background color), and environment (specific hardware and software requirements).
Default content
The content presented to all candidates by default, without any special additions or modifications. Default content may include basic accessibility information, like alt text descriptions of images, or captions for videos, that are available to all users/candidates.
Delivery system
A computer system that presents assessment content and gathers candidate responses.
Delivery-mode
PNP: The term "delivery-mode" is a parameter of the braille support that has two possible values, "refreshable" or embossed. The default delivery-mode of braille is "refreshable," meaning that it assumes the user will be using a refreshable braille display connected to the content presentation computer. The other delivery-mode is embossed, meaning that the braille should be presented to the user on paper.
Digital materials
One type of companion materials that might be provided in an assessment. Content or reference materials that relate to the item content. Examples could be a map, a table of information, a sheet of math formulas, an interactive periodic table of elements, or even graphic creation tools.
Directions-only
PNP: The term "directions-only" is a vocabulary of the restriction-type parameter within the spoken support. It indicates that the user may only have words read aloud to them that are directions. This is commonly used in an assessment context.
DOM
The browser's Document Object Model is a programmatic representation of the contents of a web page.
DRD
Digital Resource Description. Part of the IMS Access for All (AfA) specification.
Embossed
Term: On a physical surface, raised or depressed indentations on the surface. In braille, this refers to raised dots on the physical surface (generally on paper), that represent written characters for languages and symbols.
PNP: The term "embossed" is a vocabulary of the delivery-mode parameter within the braille support. It indicates that the user prefers to have their content delivered to them on a static, physically embossed surface, and not a dynamic, refreshable braille display.
Environment
PNP: The term "environment" contains information about the physical space which the candidate occupies, including the space itself, anything that should or should not be in that space, the social environment, medicines, software, hardware, machines, and whether the candidate will be taking breaks (usually referring to assessment breaks). In the context of an assessment, this environment information should be made available prior to the testing session to ensure it is setup correctly for the candidate.
Feedback
Information provided by the test delivery system to the candidate related to the candidate's response.
File metadata
This is the metadata defined for a file within the manifest of a content package. Each file can have its own metadata description. The metadata for a file should be based upon a QTI profile of the LOM metadata.
Full-keyboard-control
DRD: Indicates a resource that can be controlled effectively using only a keyboard.
PNP: The term "full-keyboard-control" is a vocabulary of the "input-requirements" parameter. It indicates that the user requires the ability to control all resources from the keyboard alone.
Full-mouse-control
DRD: Indicates a resource that can be controlled effectively using only a mouse.
PNP: The term "full-mouse-control" is a vocabulary of the "input-requirements" parameter. It indicates that the user requires the ability to control all resources from a mouse or other pointing device alone.
Full-switch-control
DRD: Indicates a resource that can be controlled effectively using only a single switch and its associated control software.
PNP: The term "full-switch-control" is a vocabulary of the "input-requirements" parameter. It indicates that the user requires the ability to control all resources from a single switch and its associated control software.
Full-touchscreen-control
DRD: Indicates a resource that can be controlled effectively using only a touchscreen.
PNP: The term "full-touchscreen-control" is a vocabulary of the "input-requirements" parameter. It indicates that the user requires the ability to control all resources from a touchscreen alone.
Glossary on-screen
Term: An on-screen feature which allows a user to see definitions for designated words or phrases. The word or phrase will have some form of highlighting to indicate a glossary term that can be clicked to reveal the definition.
PNP: The term "glossary-on-screen" indicates the user should be provided an on-screen glossary.
Grade
DRD: A braille property that indicates which grade of contraction the braille characters use. Grade 1 (I) is uncontracted braille. Grade 2 (II) is contracted braille. Grade 3 (III) is a more highly contracted form of braille.
PNP: The term "grade" is a parameter of the braille support which indicates the grade of braille that should be presented to the user. Possible values are 1, 2, or 3, with the default value of 2.
Graphing calculator
Term: A general category of calculator, offering the ability to display equations graphically.
QTI 3: In QTI 3 content, within companionMaterialsInfo, in the "calculator" term, use the vocabulary "graphing" to indicate that the item requires the use of a graphing calculator. For QTI 3, a Graphing calculator includes many of the same functions of a scientific calculator, plus the ability to display equations graphically.
PNP: The term "graphing" is a vocabulary of the calculator-type parameter within the calculator-on-screen feature. Typically if this is included in a PNP, an onscreen graphing calculator should be provided to an assessment candidate, even if calculators are usually prohibited for the item or assessment. It indicates an override of the usual business rules for the assessment.
High contrast
Term: A resource offering an alternative visual version of another resource, with visual presentation of text and images of text that has a contrast ratio of at least 7:1, or, for larger text, a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 (WCAG2 Guideline 1.4.6): https://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20-20081103/visual-audio-contrast7.html
PNP: The term "high-contrast" indicates a user's preference that high-contrast alternatives (graphics, interface, or any other visually presented materials) be provided to the user if available.
Homophone checker
Term: A resource that allows the user to understand the difference between words that share the same pronunciation regardless of how they are spelled.
PNP: The term "homophone-checker" indicates the user should have access to an on-screen homophone checker.
Inline interaction
An interaction that doesn't start on a new line, only takes up as much width as necessary or is in the same flow as the preceding and subsequent elements, as opposed to block interactions.
Input requirements
Term: The requirements for the user to fully operate a computer interface using only their preferred input method (i.e., keyboard, mouse, etc.).
PNP: The term "input-requirements" indicates a user's computer input requirements. It does not mean the user cannot use other methods of input (the interface should not prevent these other methods), but that the interface must have full control of the interface using the method provided in their PNP.
Interaction
Allows a candidate to select either a provided response or to construct their own response. It is possible to have multiple interactions within a single QTI item.
Internationalization
The means of adapting computer systems to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target locale.
Invert display polarity
Term: The values (the dark and light aspect) of the default presentation colors are inverted in the user interface. White is black, black is white. The purpose of inverting the values is to display text as light text over a dark background. While some inversion tools also reverse the polarity of the color hue (red to green, blue to yellow, etc.), the color shift is not necessarily needed or desired for the display of text.
PNP: The term "invert-display-polarity" indicates the user should have the ability to invert the polarity of the device display. In practice, the user should also have to capability to switch between the inverted and default display colors of the content.
IRT
Item Response Theory (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Item_response_theory)
Item
The smallest exchangeable assessment object within this specification. An item is more than a 'Question' in that it contains the question and instructions to be presented, the responseProcessing to be applied to the candidate response(s) and the Feedback that may be presented (including hints and solutions). In the QTI specification items are represented by the assessmentItem class and the term assessment item is used interchangeably for item.
adaptive item: An Item that adapts either its appearance, its scoring (Response Processing) or both in response to each of the candidate's Attempts. This allows candidates to alter their answer following Feedback or to be posed additional questions based on their current answer.
composite item: An item containing multiple interactions.
Item translation
Term: A translated version (a variant) of the assessment content is presented to the user in place of, or in addition to, the primary language of the content.
PNP: The term "item-translation" indicates that the user would prefer the content presented to them in the language specified.
Keyboard directions
Term: Directions that supply information about how to control an interaction using a keyboard, which may include specific keyboard shortcuts (combinations of key strokes that perform a specific function).
PNP: The term "keyboard-directions" indicates that the user should be provided with keyboard directions when available.
Keyword emphasis
Term: Certain words are designated in the content as keywords for emphasis (beyond the default emphasis that may exist for all users). Programs would indicate how these keywords are to be emphasized (bold, italic, color background etc.).
PNP: The term "keyword-emphasis" indicates the user should be provided with additional emphasis on specific keywords in the content. Note that for some visual emphasis methods, the emphasis may not be perceivable by screen reader users.
Keyword translation
Term: Certain specific words would have language translations available to users who need some assistance with difficult or important words in the content. PNP: The term "keyword-translation" indicates that the user should be presented with translations of certain word(s) in the language specified when available.
Language-of-interface
Term: The language used on the interface elements (navigation buttons, labels, page headings, etc.), as differentiated from the language of content within the interface. For example, in an assessment, the interface could be in English, while the assessment questions and directions are in Spanish.
PNP: The term "language-of-interface" indicates the user has a preferred language for the interface, and should be given the interface in that language when available.
Layout-single-column
PNP: The term "layout-single-column" indicates that the user requests that the content be displayed in a single column of text when possible.
Line reader
Term: A tool that allows the user to move a marker (a colored bar or an underscore) up or down text, line by line, to assist in reading the content.
PNP: The term "line-reader" indicates that the user should have access to a line reader tool. The "highlight-color" can optionally be provided, using hexidecimal notation.
Linguistic guidance
Term: Additional definitions or explanations are associated with the content to assist users who are not fluent readers of the language in which the content is written.
PNP: The term "linguistic-guidance" indicates that the user should be presented additional linguistic-guidance content when available.
Long description
Term: An alternative text that is longer than a few sentences, generally used to describe a non-text object that requires a longer description than alternative text, and/or might require text formatting (headings, tables, lists, etc.).
PNP: the term "long-description" indicates that the user prefers to have access to long descriptions when available.
Magnification
Term: Content on a computer device's screen is magnified by the amount specified by the user. This is distinct from enlarging a font size or providing a static large print version.
PNP: The term "magnification" indicates that the user would like the ability to magnify the content. If no additional parameters are provided, a general mechanism for magnifying the content should be provided. The PNP could indicate the kinds of content to magnify using the following vocabulary: "text", "non-text", or "all-content", and optionally provide a preferred magnification amount.
Math-type
DRD: A braille property that indicates which math braille characters/representations are present. The possible values are "ueb" (Unified English Braille) and "nemeth". This property also allows for an extension, to permit other math-type values.
PNP: The term "math-type" is a parameter of the braille support which indicates the type of math braille that should be presented to the user.
MathML
An XML based markup language that facilitates the use and re-use of mathematical and scientific content on the Web.
Note taking on-screen
Term: A feature providing the ability to take notes in a virtual note pad while working on another activity on the computer.
PNP: The term "note-taking-on-screen" indicates that the user should have access to a note taking tool during an assessment or other activity.
On-screen
A feature which is available to use on a computer. On-screen does not imply that it is ONLY visually presented, rather than it is available on the same computer device on which the user is performing the main task.
Outcomes
The results of an assessment.
Outliner on-screen
Term: A feature providing the ability to easily create an outline of ideas (commonly a hierarchical list) while working on another activity on the computer.
PNP: The term "outliner-on-screen" indicates that the user should have access to an outliner tool available during an assessment or other activity.
Package
A description and organization of assessment content for transport and exchange. QTI uses the IMS Content Packaging specification to provide a standard way to import, export, aggregate, and disaggregate content.
PCI
Portable Custom Interaction, an item interaction defined in the QTI specification as an extension that references all of the code that is required to implement the user interface and behavior of the interaction when used to render and interact with the item containing the portable custom interaction.
PNP
Personal Needs and Preferences. A PNP is a user profile. A PNP for a user will contain information that describes their accessibility needs and/or support preferences.
Portable Custom Interaction
See PCI above.
Presentation system
An application that presents educational or assessment materials to users and receives user input.
Prohibit-set
PNP: Within a PNP, a set of supports that are specifically NOT available to the user. The prohibition of supports should be made carefully to avoid denying a user a necessary support.
Protractor
Term: A tool for measuring angles.
QTI 3: In QTI 3 content, within companionMaterialsInfo, use the vocabulary "protractor" to indicate that the item requires the use of a protractor.
Refreshable braille display
Term: A refreshable braille display or braille terminal is an electro-mechanical device for displaying braille characters, usually by means of round-tipped pins raised through holes in a flat surface. Blind computer users who cannot use a computer monitor can use it to read text output. (From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refreshable_braille_display )
PNP: The term "refreshable" is a vocabulary of the delivery-mode parameter within the braille support. It indicates that the user prefers to have their content delivered on a refreshable braille display.
Response processing
A standard way defined by the QTI specification for delivery systems to assign outcomes based on a candidate's responses. These outcomes may be used to provide Feedback to the candidate.
Restriction-type
PNP: The term "restriction-type" is a parameter used within the spoken support. The restriction-type indicates if some kinds of content should categorically not be available to the user through speech. The restriction may be placed on the user because of an assessment context, or to reduce extraneous information that would not benefit the user. The default assumption is that users have unrestricted spoken access to all content.
Review
QTI 3: A system state where an item can be presented after a delivery system or reporting tool has reached a closed state. Summary Feedback may also be visible at this point if response processing has taken place and set a suitable outcome variable.
Rubric block
A data structure in QTI that identifies part of an assessmentItem's itemBody that represents instructions to one or more of the actors that view the item.
Rule
Term: A tool for measuring spatial dimensions.
QTI 3: In QTI 3 content, within companionMaterialsInfo, use the vocabulary "rule" to indicate that the item requires the use of a rule.
Scientific calculator
Term: A general category of calculator, offering basic calculations, algebraic and transcendental functions, and their inverses.
QTI 3: In QTI 3 content, within companionMaterialsInfo, in the "calculator" term, use the vocabulary "scientific" to indicate that the item requires the use of a scientific calculator. For QTI 3, the assumed functions may include, but are not limited to: all "standard" calculator functions, a π key, sign change (+/-), square (x2) , cube (x3), x to the y (xy), square root (√) , cube root , xth root , logarithm keys, log, ln, base 10, base e, Trigonometry function keys with an INVERSE key for the inverse functions, sin, cos, tan, hsin (hyperbolic sin), hcos, (hyperbolic cos), htan (hyperbolic tan), DEG, RAD, GRAD conversion, a capacity to work in both degree and radian mode, a reciprocal key (1/x) calculate the inverse of the displayed value, permutation and/or combination keys (nPr , nCr), parentheses keys, metric conversion, permutation and combination keys, nPr, cPr, and x!.
PNP: the term "scientific" is a vocabulary within the calculator-type parameter of the calculator-on-screen feature. Typically if this is included in a PNP, an on-screen scientific calculator should be provided to an assessment candidate, even if calculators are usually prohibited for the item or assessment. It indicates an override of the usual business rules for the assessment.
Screen reader
Term: Software that reads a computer screen's content to the user. Screen reader software converts written text into spoken text (using text-to-speech software) or into braille, and also aids in the navigation and parsing of the page's content for the user. Note that for the content to be made usable for screen reader users, the content should be at least WCAG 2.0 Level AA compliant, and may require additional WAI-ARIA tagging to provide access to the content.
PNP: The term "screen-reader" is a vocabulary of the reading-type parameter within the spoken support. It indicates the user is using screen reader software.
Shared stimulus
A data structure in QTI that enables content to be shared by multiple Assessment Items.
Sign language
Term: Language expressed through a visual mode, using combinations of movements of the hands and arms, facial expressions, or body positions to convey meaning. (WCAG 2.0)
PNP: The term "sign-language" indicates that the user would like content presented to them in the language indicated. In the context of a web-based presentation of content, sign language is generally presented as simultaneous content in a video alongside the default visually presented content (including text in a written language). The video playback should be controlled by the user.
Simplified graphics
Term: A simplified version of a more complicated graphic. The simplified version of the graphic may remove extraneous decoration, or in same cases even reduce the amount of information displayed.
PNP: the term "simplified-graphics" indicates that the user should be presented with simplified versions of graphics when available.
Simplified language portions
QTI 3: For portions of the content, alternative content is provided that uses simpler, more basic kinds of language. This content is generally optionally available to the user; the default language is presented initially, and the alternative is presented upon request of the user.
PNP: the term "simplified-language-portions" indicates that the user would like access to simplied language for portions of the content when available.
Skip-chemistry-equations
PNP: The term "skip-chemistry-equations" is a vocabulary of the restriction-type parameter within the spoken support. It indicates that the user should NOT have chemistry equations read out loud to them. This is commonly used in an assessment context, where understanding chemistry equations is part of the test construct.
Skip-math-equations
PNP: The term "skip-math-equations" is a vocabulary of the restriction-type parameter within the spoken support. It indicates that the user should NOT have math equations read out loud to them. This is commonly used in an assessment context, where understanding math equations is part of the test construct.
Spoken
QTI 3: Text-based content presented to the user is spoken aloud. Alternative text for non-text content may also be spoken aloud.
PNP: The term "spoken" indicates that the user would like the content to be read out loud to them. A user's PNP should also indicate the user's "reading-type" (see computer-read-aloud and screen-reader).
Standard calculator
Term: A general category of a type of calculator, offering some additional functions beyond basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
QTI 3: In QTI 3 content, within companion tools, in the "calculator" term, use the type "standard" to indicate that the item requires the use of a standard calculator. For QTI 3, the assumed functions may include, but are not limited to: all basic calculator functions, square root, percentage (%), plus/minus, a.k.a. sign change, and memory functions.
PNP: The term "standard" is a vocabulary within the calculator-type parameter of the calculator-on-screen feature. Typically if this is included in a PNP, an onscreen standard calculator should be provided to an assessment candidate, even if calculators are usually prohibited for the item or assessment. It indicates an override of the usual business rules for the assessment.
Support
A specific feature or accessibility need that will benefit the user during a learning, assessment, work, or entertainment session.
Support-specific content
Content intended only for people who have specific support requests.
Tactile
Term: An object that can be felt with the hands.
QTI 3: A tactile representation of the graphic information is made available outside of the user's computer.
PNP: The term "tactile" indicates that the user should have access to tactile materials when available, and should be presented with any tactile tour content that describes the tactile materials.
Tactile tour
Term: Text content that provides information that orients the user about the tactile object.
Text-appearance
PNP: The term "text-appearance" indicates a group of features that describe the preferences the user has for the appearance of text-based content within the computer presentation environment.
Text-to-speech
A software technology that converts written words into spoken sound. Often referred to by the acronym TTS. TTS is used for screen reader and computer read-aloud supports.
Transcript
Term: A nonsynchronous written alternative for time-based media content, which includes dialogue (including the speaker name/role) and descriptions of sounds and/or important information that is presented visually.
PNP: The term "transcript" indicates that the user should have access to transcript content if available.
TTS
See text-to-speech
Typing echo
Term: Typing echo specifies how the user would like the text-to-speech engine to announce the characters and/or words as they input text into a text area on a computer.
PNP: The term "typing-echo" is a parameter within the spoken support that indicates whether the user would prefer to have words read back to them by characters, words, characters-and-words, or none (meaning don't read out loud as the user inputs characters).
Unrestricted
PNP: The term "unrestricted" is a vocabulary of the restriction-type parameter within the spoken support. It indicates that the user should NOT be restricted from having any content read aloud. The unrestricted value is the default setting for the spoken support. In an assessment context, specifically assigning a candidate to unrestricted access should indicate that even if a specific program has placed restrictions on what should or should not be read aloud (i.e. a reading passage), the candidate should have all content read aloud to them.
Variant
This is a feature in the IMS CPv1.2 that is used to contain alternative resource information. A resource can have many variants (for example, an English variant, a Spanish variant, and a Chinese Variant). In QTI 3, the variant structure is used to contain the metadata that describes the conditions under which the alternative forms of an item are available to be used. Variants for an item are packaged together in a single item content package.
Visual organizer on-screen
Term: A tool that allows people to organize their thoughts by constructing a visual representation of their ideas.
PNP: The term "visual-organizer-on-screen" indicates the user should have access to an on-screen visual organizer tool.
W3C
World Wide Web Consortium
Word-by-word
PNP: The term "word-by-word" is a kind of restriction-type within the spoken support. It indicates that the user may only have words read aloud to them a single word at a time. They may select and hear individual words read out loud, but not listen to whole phrases, sentences, or paragraphs.
XSD
XML Schema Definition

3. Conformance Statements

This document is an informative resource in the Document Set of the QTI v3.0 specification [QTI-30]. As such, it does not include any normative requirements. Occurrences in this document of terms such as MAY, MUST, MUST NOT, SHOULD or RECOMMENDED have no impact on the conformance critera for implementors of this specification.

A. Revision History

This section is non-normative.

A.1 Version History

Version No. Release Date Comments
IMS Public Candidate Final 3.0 20 July 2020 The first release of this document.

B. References

B.1 Normative references

[ISO-639-2]
Codes for the representation of names of languages -- Part 2: Alpha-3 code. ISO/TC 37/SC 2. ISO. 1998. International Standard. URL: https://www.iso.org/standard/4767.html
[ISO-639-3]
Codes for the representation of names of languages -- Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages. ISO/TC 37/SC 2. ISO. 2007. International Standard. URL: https://www.iso.org/standard/39534.html
[RFC2119]
Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. S. Bradner. IETF. March 1997. Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119

C. List of Contributors

The following individuals contributed to the development of this document:

Name Organization Role
Arjan AarninkCito
Vijay AmbatiACT, Inc.
Jérôme BogaertsOpen Assessment Technologies
Shiva BojjawarMcGraw-Hill Education
Catriona BuhayarNWEA
Jason CarlsonACT, Inc.
Gary DriscollETS
Michael FingerMeasured Progress
Paul GrudnitskiPearson
Mark HakkinenETS
Thomas HoffmannETSEditor
Rob HowardNWEA
Stephen KacsmarkInstructure
Justin MarksNWEA
Amy MarrichOpen Assessment Technologies
Mark McKellIMS Global
Mark MolenaarOpen Assessment Technologies
Brian MottersheadRiverscape Software
Nate OberQuestar
Padraig O'hiceadhaHoughton Mifflin Harcourt
Madeline RothbergWGBH
Colin SmytheIMS Global
Tjeerd Hans TerpstraCito
Travis ThompsonData Recognition Corporation
Jason WhiteETS

IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. ("IMS Global") is publishing the information contained in this document ("Specification") for purposes of scientific, experimental, and scholarly collaboration only.

IMS Global makes no warranty or representation regarding the accuracy or completeness of the Specification.

This material is provided on an "As Is" and "As Available" basis.

The Specification is at all times subject to change and revision without notice.

It is your sole responsibility to evaluate the usefulness, accuracy, and completeness of the Specification as it relates to you.

IMS Global would appreciate receiving your comments and suggestions.

Please contact IMS Global through our website at http://www.imsglobal.org.

Please refer to Document Name: Question and Test Interoperability Terms and Definitions 3.0

Date: 20 July 2020