Open Badges Assessment Extension 1.0 IMS Candidate Final

Open Badges Assessment Extension

IMS Candidate Final Public
Version 1.0
IMS Candidate Final Public
Date Issued: October 7th, 2020
Status: This document is for review and adoption by the IMS membership.
This version: https://www.imsglobal.org/spec/ob-assessment/v1p0/
Latest version: https://www.imsglobal.org/spec/ob-assessment/latest/
Errata: https://www.imsglobal.org/spec/ob-assessment/v1p0/errata/

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1. Abstract

An extension to Open Badges that allows issuers to define assessment(s) related to the award process.

2. Overview

2.1 Introduction

This section is non-normative.

This extension provides information about single or multiple assessments that would be completed by the recipient as part of the requirements for earning an OpenBadge. There could be multiple assessments of different types for each badge earned. Separate, independent evaluations of a single assessment could result in multiple assessment/evaluation records, all included in a single instance of the extension. Please note that this extension is in draft mode and may not be ready for production.

A diagram of the relationships between the data classes in this extension

Figure 1 A diagram of the data classes and tree of where to nest the appropriate values in a BadgeClass

2.2 Use cases

This section is non-normative.

  • Describe an assessment so a potential recipient understands the process.
  • Describe assessment(s) so badge consumers better know what recipients did to earn the badge.
  • Include explicit application information to build an automated application form for the badge.
  • Describe rubrics related to assessment so recipients, assessors, and consumers have a consistent understanding of the criteria for passing the described assessment(s).

2.3 Extendable Badge Objects

BadgeClass

2.4 Terminology

The terminology used in this document is consistent with the terminology established in the Open Badges 2.0 specification [OB-20].

2.5 Conformance Statements

As well as sections marked as non-normative, all authoring guidelines, diagrams, examples, and notes in this specification are non-normative. Everything else in this specification is normative.

The key words "MAY", "MUST", "MUST NOT", "OPTIONAL", "RECOMMENDED", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", and "SHOULD NOT" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

An implementation of this specification that fails to implement a MUST/REQUIRED/SHALL requirement or fails to abide by a MUST NOT/SHALL NOT prohibition is considered nonconformant. SHOULD/SHOULD NOT/RECOMMENDED statements constitute a best practice. Ignoring a best practice does not violate conformance but a decision to disregard such guidance should be carefully considered. MAY/OPTIONAL statements indicate that implementers are entirely free to choose whether or not to implement the option.

2.6 Document Set

2.6.1 Normative Documents

JSON Schema
The JSON Schema defines the syntactical restrictions of this extension [OB-ASSMT-10-SCHEMA].
JSON-LD Context
The JSON-LD context defines mappings for the terms used in this specification to their canonical IRIs [OB-ASSMT-10-CONTEXT].
Errata
The errata details any erratum registered for this version of this specification since its publication [OB-ASSMT-10-ERRATA].

3. Properties

This extension has a more deeply nested data structure than many other available extensions. At the top level is a very simple AssessmentExtension object that contains an overall description and one or more detailed assessment descriptors.

3.1 Assessment Extension Properties

Property Type Value Description
@context IRI https://purl.imsglobal.org/spec/ob-assessment/v1p0/context/ (required)
type JSON-LD Type Array ["Extension", "extensions:AssessmentExtension"] (required)
description string A short overall description of the assessment(s). (required)
assessments AssessmentObject Detailed information about the assessment(s) that may be administered. (required, multiple allowed)

3.2 AssessmentObject Properties

Property Type Value Description
description string Description of the single assessment. (required)
type IRI One of the following type identifiers defined in the extension context: Exam, Performance or Artifact. (required)
assessmentOutput string This field provides additional details about assessment type. Values for assessmentOutput are expected to be words or phrases that describe the key features of the evidence that are produced in earning the badge. (required)
hasGroupParticipation boolean Completing the assessment activity being referenced requires two or more participants. (required)
hasGroupEvaluation boolean Participants in the assessment activity being referenced are scored as a group. (required)
evaluationMethod string Information about how the assessment is scored. What do the scores represent in a range of scores? If a rubric was used, what are the score ranges for each criteria?
assessmentExample string (URI) An example based on the assessment type.
scoringMethodExampleDescription string The text of an example of the method or tool used to score the assessment.
assessmentEvaluation string (URI) Link to studies or other information about research or calculations of reliability and validity for the assessment or the scoring methods.
sections Section A listing of sections, each with questions, that make up the assessment. Typically included if the issuer wishes to make available applications for the badge. (multiple allowed)
rubrics Rubric Rubrics associated with this badge that an issuer wishes to include, typically so they may be displayed across multiple platforms where the badges appear. A rubric included here may be referenced by sections or questions within those sections. (multiple allowed)

3.3 Section Properties

Property Type Value Description
title string The name of the section.
description string A short description of the section.
questions Question The questions that make up this section. (multiple allowed)
required string Indicates whether this section is considered to be required for completion of the assessment. Default: true.
url string (URI) An external URL that represents this section.
rubricId string A pointer to a Rubric or RubricCriterion related to this section, its UUID-formatted identifier. This should match the identifier property of a rubric defined elsewhere in the extension.

3.4 Question Properties

Property Type Value Description
type IRI The type of question. One of the following type identifiers defined in the extension context: ExternalQuestion, FileQuestion or TextQuestion. (required)
text string The actual text of the question. (required)
required string Indicates whether this question is considered to be required for completion of the section. Default: true.
wordLimit number For TextQuestions, specifies a maximum length in words that may be enforced as a suggestion or requirement, depending on the application.
characterLimit number For TextQuestions, specifies a maximum length in characters that may be enforced as a suggestion or requirement, depending on the application.
url string (URI) An external URL that represents this question.
rubricId string A pointer to a Rubric related to this question, its UUID-formatted identifier. This should match the identifier property of a rubric defined elsewhere in the extension.

3.5 Rubric Properties

Property Type Value Description
identifier string (UUID) A unique identifier for the Rubric. The form of the GUID is a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) of 16 hexadecimal characters (lower case) in the format 8-4-4-4-12. All permitted versions (1-5) and variants (1-2) are supported. (required)
title string The name of the Rubric. (required)
rubricCriteria RubricCriterion The objective(s) to measure with the rubric. Usually represented as a table row. (required, multiple allowed)
caseUri string (URI) An unambiguous reference to this item using a network-resolvable URI that serves CASE-compliant data.
lastChangeDateTime string (DateTime) Timestamp of last revision. Open Badges DateTime rules should be observed, requiring full datetime with timezone or UTC indicator.

3.6 RubricCriterion Properties

Property Type Value Description
identifier string (UUID) A unique identifier for the RubricCriterion. The form of the GUID is a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) of 16 hexadecimal characters (lower case) in the format 8-4-4-4-12. All permitted versions (1-5) and variants (1-2) are supported. (required)
description string A short description of the criterion.
criterionLevels RubricCriterionLevel A level of achievement on a particular criterion. Usually represented as a cell in a table. (required, multiple allowed)
caseUri string (URI) An unambiguous reference to this item using a network-resolvable URI that serves CASE-compliant data.
lastChangeDateTime string (DateTime) Timestamp of last revision. Open Badges DateTime rules should be observed, requiring full datetime with timezone or UTC indicator.
category string A textual label for category by which criteria may be grouped.
weight number A numeric weight assigned to this criterion, used for scored rubrics.
position number (Integer) A numeric value representing this criterion's position in the criteria list for this rubric.

3.7 RubricCriterionLevel Properties

Property Type Value Description
identifier string (UUID) A unique identifier for the RubricCriterionLevel. The form of the GUID is a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) of 16 hexadecimal characters (lower case) in the format 8-4-4-4-12. All permitted versions (1-5) and variants (1-2) are supported. (required)
quality string A qualitative description of this degree of achievement used for column headers or row labels in tabular rubrics. This typically matches exactly across multiple criteria in a rubric to enable rendering as a unified table.
description string A human readable description of the criterion level. Typically rendered as the content of a rubric cell. (required)
caseUri string (URI) An unambiguous reference to this item using a network-resolvable URI that serves CASE-compliant data.
lastChangeDateTime string (DateTime) Timestamp of last revision. Open Badges DateTime rules should be observed, requiring full datetime with timezone or UTC indicator.
score number The number of points awarded for achieving this level.
position number (Integer) A numeric value representing this level's position in the list of levels for this criterion. Integer.
feedback string Pre-defined feedback text to be relayed to the person or organization being evaluated. This may include guidance and suggestions for improvement or development.

A. Examples

A.1 A Simple Single Assessment


{
  "extensions:assessmentExtension": {
    "@context":"https://purl.imsglobal.org/spec/ob-assessment/v1p0/context/",
    "type": ["Extension", "extensions:AssessmentExtension"],
    "description": "A written evaluation based on a simulation of a medical procedure.",
    "assessments": [
      {
        "description": "The assessment presents a hypertension scenario with simulated lab results. It is administered to pathophysiology students in an undergraduate nursing program. Completing the assessment requires analytical writing describing and justifying the diagnoses and eliminating alternative diagnoses. See the Pathology of High Blood Pressure assignment and the hypertension scenario used for this assessment.",
        "type": "Artifact",
        "assessmentOutput": "Written responses to the questions posed in the hypertension scenario",
        "hasGroupParticipation": false,
        "hasGroupEvaluation": false,
        "evaluationMethod": "No studies have been done on reliability or validity but the hypertension scenario is consistent with scenarios encountered in nursing clinical practice.",
        "assessmentExample": "http://placeholderurl.com",
        "scoringMethodExampleDescription": "Placeholder text",
        "assessmentEvaluation": "http://placeholderurl.com"
      }
    ]
  }
}

A.2 An Assessment with Questions and a Rubric


{
  "extensions:assessmentExtension": {
    "@context": "https://purl.imsglobal.org/spec/ob-assessment/v1p0/context/",
    "type": ["Extension", "extensions:AssessmentExtension"],
    "description": "A rubric-based evaluation of Web Browser Skills",
    "assessments": [{
      "description": "An assessment of celerity with a web browser",
      "type": "Artifact",
      "evaluationMethod": "Rubric-based evaluation",
      "assessmentOutput": "Written responses and screenshots",
      "hasGroupParticipation": false,
      "hasGroupEvaluation": false,
      "sections": [{
        "title": "Section One: Intro",
        "description": "Show some knowledge of important facets of current web browsers.",
        "questions": [{
            "type": "TextQuestion",
            "text": "What are two ways a user can see what URL a link is going to take them to when clicked?"
          },
          {
            "type": "FileQuestion",
            "text": "What is the 'browser chrome'? Take a screenshot cropped to just show some key components of the browser chrome.",
            "rubricId": "04f28d86-994f-4469-9ad7-3bf9d703a286"
          },
          {
            "type": "TextQuestion",
            "text": "Extra credit: What are some important effects of competetition in the browser market? Why do they matter",
            "characterLimit": 500,
            "required": false
          }
        ]
      }],
      "rubrics": [{
        "identifier": "04f28d86-994f-4469-9ad7-3bf9d703a286",
        "lastChangeDateTime": "2018-01-31T16:54:00Z",
        "title": "Image Quality Rubric",
        "rubricCriteria": [{
          "identifier": "ef324364-735c-443f-975f-9d76bd91f25a",
          "description": "Resolution",
          "criterionLevels": [{
              "identifier": "2b77179b-8b68-4fbe-9e76-d6d38a8131f3",
              "quality": "Great",
              "description": "There are enough pixels to experience the image content at the appropriate visual size but not too many.",
              "position": 0
            },
            {
              "identifier": "6ac9344f-21b6-4196-93f8-4decef0bb7c3",
              "quality": "OK",
              "description": "The content is readable or understandable but there may be significantly more pixels than necessary for the purpose or too few to be used for all intended experiences, such as printing.",
              "position": 1
            },
            {
              "identifier": "29011f65-6ac7-4645-bcac-09e7124aee1c",
              "quality": "Needs Work",
              "description": "The content is not understandable. Needs more pixels.",
              "position": 2
            }
          ]
        }]
      }]
    }]
  }
}

B. Revision History

This section is non-normative.

B.1 Version History

Version No. Release Date Comments
Candidate Final Public October 7, 2020 Release extension as public
Candidate Final April 12th, 2018 Update to include Rubric, Section, and Question
Working Document 1.0 January 1st, 2017 Initial proof of concept.

C. References

C.1 Normative references

[OB-20]
Open Badges v2.0. Otto, Nate; Bohrer, Jeff; Cook, Timothy; Gylling, Markus; Hripak, Alexander; Pitcher, Justin. IMS Global Learning Consortium. April 2018. IMS Final Release. URL: https://www.imsglobal.org/spec/ob/v2p0/
[OB-ASSMT-10-CONTEXT]
Open Badges Assessment Extension v1.0 JSON-LD Context. IMS Global Learning Consortium. April 2018. IMS Final Release. URL: https://purl.imsglobal.org/spec/ob-assessment/v1p0/context/
[OB-ASSMT-10-ERRATA]
Open Badges Assessment Extension v1.0 Errata. IMS Global Learning Consortium. April 2018. IMS Final Release. URL: https://www.imsglobal.org/spec/ob-assessment/v1p0/errata/
[OB-ASSMT-10-SCHEMA]
Open Badges Assessment Extension v1.0 JSON Schema. IMS Global Learning Consortium. April 2018. IMS Final Release. URL: https://purl.imsglobal.org/spec/ob-assessment/v1p0/schema/
[RFC2119]
Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. S. Bradner. IETF. March 1997. Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119

D. List of Contributors

The following individuals contributed to the development of this document:

Name Organization
Thor AndersonIMS Global
Robert BajorDigital Promise
Sherri N. BraxtonUniversity of Maryland, Baltimore County
Joe Crawford Cobb County School District, Georgia
Van DavisBlackboard
Gary DriscollEducational Testing Service
Jonathan FinkelsteinCredly
Steve GanceWashington State Board of Community and Technical Colleges
Bob GroganeLumen
Grainne HamiltonDigitalMe
Joel HernandezeLumen
Hal HerzogLearning Objects
Curtis HunterD2L
Patrina LawThe Open University
Mark LeubaIMS Global
Randy NewbroughIndiana University
Nate OttoConcentric Sky
Jason WeaverParchment
Shannon WellsFoundation for California Community Colleges
Casey WrightPurdue University
David LeaserIBM
Heidi WilkesSNHU
Patrick WirthUniversity of Wisconsin Extension
Moses WolfensteinUniversity of Wisconsin Extension
Tim RichesDigitalMe
Melissa MorenoCareer Skills Institute, Santa Barbara City College
Travis PynenburgSNHU
Kerrie LemoieOpenWorks Group LLC
Mark LeubaIMS Global

IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. ("IMS Global") is publishing the information contained in this document ("Specification") for purposes of scientific, experimental, and scholarly collaboration only.

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This material is provided on an "As Is" and "As Available" basis.

The Specification is at all times subject to change and revision without notice.

It is your sole responsibility to evaluate the usefulness, accuracy, and completeness of the Specification as it relates to you.

IMS Global would appreciate receiving your comments and suggestions.

Please contact IMS Global through our website at http://www.imsglobal.org.

Please refer to Document Name: Open Badges Assessment Extension 1.0

Date: October 7th, 2020