1EdTech Question and Test Interoperability Integration Guide
Version 2.0 Final Specification
Copyright © 2005 1EdTech Consortium, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Document Name: 1EdTech Question and Test Interoperability Integration Guide
Revision: 24 January 2005
|Date Issued:||24 January 2005|
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Table of Contents
- 1. Introduction
- 2. References
- 3. Content Packaging
- 4. Learning Design
- 5. Simple Sequencing
- 6. CMI
This document describes a set of methods for using a QTI assessmentItem in combination with some other commonly used technical specifications.
[QTI_1.2] defined an information model and associated XML binding for section and assessment concepts. A section being an aggregating class comprised of items and other sections with associated rules for sequencing and aggregation of individual item and section outcomes. An assessment was effectively defined as a section at the top-most level, in other words, a test. This specification does not update or replace that work, however, as [QTI_1.2] gave minimal indication as to how assessment content should be integrated into other system systems it does provide some further guidance on using assessments and sections in their existing form, in other words, guidance on integrating questestinterop objects.
- Assessment Provision through Interoperable Segments
- Barr, Sclater and Young
- 1EdTech Question & Test Interoperability: ASI XML Binding Specification, Version 1.2
- Published: 2002-02
- IEEE 1484.11.1, Standard for Learning Technology - Data Model for Content Object Communication
- 1EdTech Content Packaging Specification, Version 1.3.1
- 1EdTech Learning Design Specification, Version 1.0
- Published: 2003-01
- 1EdTech Learning Resource Meta-Data XML Binding, Version 1.2.1
- 1EdTech Simple Sequencing Specification, Version 1.0
- Published: 2003-03
- IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 Standard for Learning Object Meta-data (LOM)
- 1EdTech Question & Test Interoperability Specification, Version 1.2
- Published: 2002-02
- XHTML 1.1: The Extensible HyperText Markup Language
3. Content Packaging
1EdTech Content Packaging [IMS_CP] should be used when transferring assessmentItems between systems. To avoid confusion between the identically named item in the Content Packaging specification and, more generally, to make it clear when terms are referring to elements in the content packaging model, all references to these elements will be qualified with the prefix "cp:". This is purely a typographical convention and does not indicate the use of XML namespacing syntax.
In preparing this specification, every effort has been taken to ensure that no modifications or extensions to the existing Content Packaging data model are defined and, furthermore, features of that specification are used in the way originally intended. The goal is to enable the use of content packages containing assessmentItems with the existing base of tools that support 1EdTech Content Packaging without modification.
As this version of the QTI specification does not define either an information model or a binding for section, assessment and objectbank objects no recommendations on how to interpret collections of packaged version 2 items are made. However, packaged items may be referred to individually in an associated learning design or set of sequencing rules. This type of integration is discussed later in this document.
Given that users may wish to package assessment content defined using version 1 of the QTI specification additional guidance is given on how to package questestinterop objects. These objects may define items, sections, assessments or objectbanks in any way allowed by that version of this specification.
3.1. Packaging Items
An 1EdTech content package is a logical directory containing the content files and a special manifest file which describes them. An assessmentItem is represented in a content package by an XML file that satisfies the XML binding described by this specification.
For example, in the case of a single item the content package will contain:
- the manifest (an XML file called imsmanifest.xml)
- the item (a QTI XML file)
- any auxiliary files (typically images or media files) required by the item
The manifest file must contain a separate cp:resource describing each item. The cp:type of the cp:resource must be imsqti_item_xmlv2p0. The cp:resource in turn must contain a cp:file representing the item's XML file. The cp:resource should also contain a cp:file for each of the item's auxiliary files, however, if an auxiliary file is shared amongst several items (whether or not these other items are contained in the same content package) the auxiliary file may be represented by a separate cp:resource. In this case, the item's cp:resource must contain a cp:dependency to the cp:resource representing the auxiliary file.
Meta-data may be associated with an item by including it in the cp:resource. In the case of a content package that contains only one item the meta-data, if given, must be included in the cp:resource and not the enclosing cp:manifest. Meta-data associated with the cp:manifest itself is reserved for describing the package, not the package's contents.
The meta-data associated with an item should conform to the model and XML binding for item meta-data described elsewhere in this specification. Meta-data that conforms to that model must specify a cp:schema of "1EdTech QTI Item" and cp:schemaversion of "2.0".
The use of a cp:organization to organize QTI items contained in a content package is reserved for future use, except where the cp:organization is the basis for a set of rules described with the simple sequencing specification..
Auxiliary files that are referred to using relative URIs in an img or object must be included in the content package. These files may be placed in the top level directory or in a sub-directory of the content package if preferred.
3.2. Associating Meta-data to items in a Content Package
Previous versions of the 1EdTech QTI specification had a specific meta-data set contained within the data structures themselves, i.e. the ASI. That meta-data vocabulary had its own set of names, all of which started with the characters 'qmd_'.
In QTI version 2.0, QTI-specific meta-data has been brought into line with the IEEE LOM in accordance with the 1EdTech Meta-data Best Practice and Implementation Guide for [LOM]. The IEEE LOM standard defines a set of meta-data elements that can be used to describe learning resources, but does not describe assessment resources in sufficient detail. The application profile provided in this document therefore extends the IEEE LOM to meet the specific needs of QTI developers wishing to associate meta-data with items (as defined by the accompanying Item Information Model).
The Meta-data and Usage Data document describes a profile of [LOM] suitable for use with assessment items and a separate data model for representing usage data (i.e., item statistics). This document will be of particular interest to developers and managers of item banks and other content repositories, and to those who construct assessments from item banks
Meta-data may be associated with an item by including it in the cp:resource. In the case of a content package that contains only one item the meta-data, if given, must be included in the cp:resource and not the enclosing cp:manifest. Meta-data associated with the cp:manifest itself is reserved for describing the package, not the package's contents.
One of the goals during the development of this specification was to allow support by as large a number of existing tools as possible. It was also considered important to provide support for use of both the QTI specific meta-data in combination with the currently widely used [IMS_MD_Binding] and the future IEEE [LOM] binding. Both of these have been taken into account while developing the integration method.
The complete example file contains all the code discussed below:
Metadata in Content Package example
The schema file for the 1EdTech QTI Version 2 meta-data needs to be referenced in the manifest element using a suggested prefix of imsqti.
<manifest xmlns="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imscp_v1p1" xmlns:imsmd="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imsmd_v1p2" xmlns:imsqti="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imsqti_v2p0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" identifier="MANIFEST-QTI-1" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imscp_v1p1 imscp_v1p1.xsd http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imsmd_v1p2 imsmd_v1p2p2.xsd http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imsqti_v2p0 imsqti_v2p0.xsd">
The meta-data for the individual items is added inside the meta-data element for the resource element containing the QTI item. The generic meta-data, either using the 1EdTech MD structures or the IEEE LOM structures goes first in the cp:metadata element, followed by the 1EdTech QTIv2 Item meta-data.
<resource identifier="RES-1" type="imsqti_item_xmlv2p0" href="qti_v2_item_01.xml"> <metadata> <schema>1EdTech QTI Item</schema> <schemaversion>2.0</schemaversion> <imsmd:lom> <imsmd:general> <imsmd:identifier>qti_v2_item_01</imsmd:identifier> <imsmd:title> <imsmd:langstring xml:lang="en">Meta-data Example Item #1</imsmd:langstring> </imsmd:title> <imsmd:description> <imsmd:langstring xml:lang="en">This is a dummy item</imsmd:langstring> </imsmd:description> </imsmd:general> <imsmd:lifecycle> <imsmd:version> <imsmd:langstring xml:lang="en">1.0</imsmd:langstring> </imsmd:version> <imsmd:status> <imsmd:source> <imsmd:langstring xml:lang="x-none">LOMv1.0</imsmd:langstring> </imsmd:source> <imsmd:value> <imsmd:langstring xml:lang="x-none">Draft</imsmd:langstring> </imsmd:value> </imsmd:status> </imsmd:lifecycle> </imsmd:lom> <imsqti:qtiMetadata> <imsqti:timeDependent>false</imsqti:timeDependent> <imsqti:interactionType>choiceInteraction</imsqti:interactionType> <imsqti:feedbackType>nonadaptive</imsqti:feedbackType> <imsqti:solutionAvailable>true</imsqti:solutionAvailable> <imsqti:toolName>XMLSPY</imsqti:toolName> <imsqti:toolVersion>5.4</imsqti:toolVersion> <imsqti:toolVendor>ALTOVA</imsqti:toolVendor> </imsqti:qtiMetadata> </metadata> <file href="choice.xml"/> <file href="images/sign.png"/> </resource>
The above code shows a simple example containing both meta-data from the 1EdTech meta-data specification, describing the title, description, version and status of the item. The second part of the meta-data is 1EdTech QTI specific. It is not mandatory to use both meta-data parts, either the generic 1EdTech meta-data part or the QTI specific part of the meta-data may be used alone.
3.3. Packaging QTI Version 1 Objects
In QTI version 1, the questestinterop element was used to contain individual items, sections, assessments or object banks. All of these objects, including any collections allowed by that version of the specification are bound to XML documents of the same type, documents with a top level <questestinterop> element.
When packaging questestinterop instances, the content package will contain:
- the manifest
- the questestinterop file (a QTI XML file satisfying the binding described in [ASI_BIND])
- any auxiliary files (typically images or media files) required by the questestinterop object
The manifest file must contain a separate cp:resource describing each questestinterop object. The cp:type of the cp:resource must be imsqti_questestinterop_xmlv1p2. The cp:resource in turn must contain a cp:file representing the questestinterop's XML file. The cp:resource should also contain a cp:file for each of the auxiliary files or, alternatively, a cp:dependency to a separate cp:resource representing the auxiliary file. The two approaches may be mixed in the same content package and must be treated identically.
Meta-data may be associated with a questestinterop object in the cp:manifest by adding it to the associated cp:resource. Meta-data conforming to the model and XML binding for item meta-data described elsewhere in this specification must only be used when the questestinterop object contains a single item and no section, assessment or objectbank objects. Furthermore, this item must not contain either qtimetadata or itemmedata elements.
The use of a cp:organization to impose a hierarchical ordering on QTI questestinterop objects contained in a content package is forbidden.
4. Learning Design
1EdTech Learning Design [IMS_LD] and 1EdTech QTI are natural partners in the learning process. The central objective of the IMSLD specification is to model Units of Learning, delimited pieces of education or training, such as courses, modules, lessons, etc. A unit of learning describes the teaching-learning process and includes a variety of activities, assessments, services and support facilities provided by teachers, trainers and other staff members.
The primary motivation for integrating 1EdTech Learning Design (IMSLD) and QTI stems from use cases which involve exploiting the results of a test or assessment to influence the learning process, often referred to as formative assessment. However, other use cases involving summative assessment, a final and comprehensive test of the learner's level of understanding, also form part of the rationale for integration.
A typical learning situation involving a Unit of Learning containing a test or assessment might see learners engaging in a series of learning activities, then undergoing a short assessment. On the basis of the results of this assessment, learners experiencing difficulties with material are directed to additional learning activities designed to strengthen their understanding. In addition, those learners scoring particularly well might be directed to skip certain learning activities.
Other cases of integration exist, such as the incorporation of straightforward, low-threshold questions throughout a unit of learning to maintain a certain degree of learner interaction, and the use of assessments for group formation in group-based learning (e.g. when dividing learners into groups of similar levels of ability).
In general, the integration seeks to position assessment in its wider educational context, and revolves around the results of QTI-based processes being used in IMSLD-based processes. However, communication is not restricted to one direction; information can be brought in to influence the assessment process, including learner preferences, the results of previous tests, or the time taken to reach the assessment.
Indeed, reconciling information described using IMSLD with that described using QTI so that run-time systems interoperate appropriately is a particular case of more general inter-specification interoperability. This integration guide does not seek to solve the more general issue, but aims to foster a tighter integration of IMSLD and QTI to help extend their application areas and improve the benefit of their combined use.
4.1. Integration through 1EdTech LD Properties and QTI Variables
A large part of 1EdTech LD's flexibility in orchestrating learning flows comes from the use of properties and conditions. Properties are used to record various types of information, which can subsequently be examined and used to influence aspects of the learning process, including the ordering and visibility of learning activities and learning objects. 1EdTech LD supports the definition of different types of property in terms of scope and persistence (see the 1EdTech Learning Design Specification for details). Note that the use of properties implies units of learning at 1EdTech LD level B or C.
In a typical example, learning designers might create a property called P-intake-test-result:
<imsld:properties> <imsld:locpers-property identifier="P-intake-test-result"> <imsld:title>The result for the test carried out as the first step in a learning flow</imsld:title> <imsld:datatype datatype="integer"/> <imsld:initial-value>0</imsld:initial-value> </imsld:locpers-property> </imsld:properties>
Here we see that an IMSLD (local, personal) property is declared, with type integer and with an initial value of zero. This property might be used in a condition to select between alternative learning activities, based on the results of the test:
<imsld:conditions> <imsld:if> <imsld:less-than> <imsld:property-ref ref="P-intake-test-result"/> <imsld:property-value>3</imsld:property-value> </imsld:less-than> </imsld:if> <imsld:then> <imsld:show> <imsld:learning-activity-ref ref="LA-Review-Additional-Material"/> </imsld:show> </imsld:then> </imsld:conditions>
Here we see an IMSLD condition which states that if the value of P-intake-test-result is less than 3, a learning activity should be shown (giving, for example, additional guidance on a topic).
The 1EdTech QTI specification includes the similar notion of variables, used to record the outcomes of assessment:
<imsqti:outcomes_processing> <imsqti:outcomes> <imsqti:decvar varname="SCORE" vartype="Integer" defaultval="0"/> </imsqti:outcomes> </imsqti:outcomes_processing>
The above XML fragment shows the declaration of a variable SCORE, of type integer and with an initial value of zero.
The integration of 1EdTech LD and 1EdTech QTI revolves around aligning property and variable names. Essentially, when property identifiers and variable names are declared to be lexically identical at design time (i.e. in 1EdTech LD-based and 1EdTech QTI-based XML), they are considered to be a shared variable in run-time software environments which involve 1EdTech LD and 1EdTech QTI-based processes. To achieve this effect in the above QTI example, the variable name would need to be modified to become the property name used in IMSLD XML. Alternatively, the IMSLD XML could be modified to align it with the QTI variable name (including references in any IMSLD conditions using the property).
Figure 1 shows a Unit of Learning which includes both a fragment of QTI and a fragment of 1EdTech LD which refer to VPROP in the manner describe above. These fragments may have been created with different tools or using an editing environment which supports authors in creating both types of content. Although software may be written to interpret both specifications, effectively side-stepping the integration issue, separate markets of LD processors and QTI processors already exist. As a result, the run-time situation may well involve different processors reading and writing VPROP
This is a loose level of integration in that, from the perspective of 1EdTech LD, the internal response processing algorithms used in the QTI content are hidden, with only the resulting outcome being of importance. Similarly, QTI-based processes are unaware of any 1EdTech LD-based use of outcomes. Some run-time mechanism must be in place to enable both 1EdTech LD and 1EdTech QTI-based processes to write to and read from, and services based on the emerging 1EdTech Shareable State Persistence Information Model would appear a suitable candidate.
A complicating factor with this approach lies in the use of multiple QTI items in which the same QTI variable name may be used more than once. The QTI specification indicates the default variable name to be "SCORE", and it is not uncommon to see this variable name used with QTI items. In order to avoid naming clashes and increase the transparency of Units of Learning which integrate IMSLD and 1EdTech-QTI, the recommended best practice is to combine identifiers. The approach is to create compound identifiers for use as 1EdTech LD property names by combining the resource identifier associated with the content package resource containing the 1EdTech QTI item as a prefix to the variable name, using a period as separator. This approach is illustrated below.
4.1.1. Naming & Typing
LD's properties are of type XML Identifiers (see http://www.imsglobal.org/learningdesign/ldv1p0/imsld_infov1p0.html#1515694), with the rules for their construction being governed by the XML 1.0 specification:
Definition: A Name is a token beginning with a letter or one of a few punctuation characters, and continuing with letters, digits, hyphens, underscores, colons, or full stops, together known as name characters.] (from Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Third Edition), W3C Recommendation 04 February 2004 http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xml-20040204/#NT-Nmtokens)
QTIv2 item variables are also XML Identifiers and so the rules governing the lexical composition of IMSLD properties and IMSQTI variable are identical.
However, the type systems used in 1EdTech LD and 1EdTech QTI differ:
A final complicating factor is the presence of multi-valued variables in QTI which have no equivalent in 1EdTech LD.
These issues point to the need for systems which process QTI items in combination with 1EdTech LD to perform checks and issue warnings when differences are seen either in the type or multi-valued nature of QTI outcome variables and 1EdTech LD properties which share a local part of their Qname.
4.2. How and where QTI content is referenced in the Learning Design of a Unit of Learning
Conceptually, from an 1EdTech Learning Design perspective, tests are linked to learning-activities which provide the instruction to complete the test that is present in the environment. In this way, reference to QTI items is likely to be as learning-objects in environments associated with learning-activities. The following figure shows part of an 1EdTech manifest file containing these relationships:
Screenshot illustrating a Learning Design referring to a QTI Item
A learning activity can reference one or more environments, and nesting of environments is permitted. Each environment can, in turn, contain several learning-objects, each referencing a separate QTI item. Environments can be made visible or hidden using 1EdTech Learning Design's condition mechanism, giving the designer of a unit of learning considerable flexibility in modeling the sequencing and selection of test items during the course of a learning process. Note that the same approach can be used for including QTI content above the item level (sections or assessments).
Compound identifiers are formed by using the resource identifier of the content package resource which references the QTI item, together with the QTI variable name, separated by a period. In the above example, assuming the QTI content in the file choice_01.xml contains an outcome variable declaration for the variable SCORE, 1EdTech-LD content needing to use the value of SCORE would use a property declared as:
4.3. A skeletal example of 1EdTech LD, QTI and CP integration
This section walks the reader through a skeletal example of a Unit of Learning which integrates 1EdTech Learning Design and 1EdTech QTI in a content package. Three questions are used, two of which use the same variable names in order to further illustrate the approach to compound identifiers.
We will build the example starting from the QTI content, held in three separate files:
Note that the first two items both use the variable SCORE, the third item uses the variable SIGNSCORE.
These three 1EdTech QTI items would be included in the content package as three resources (note that two other resources are also shown in the resources section):
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!-- edited with XMLSPY v5 rel. 4 U (http://www.xmlspy.com) by Colin Tattersall (Open University of the Netherlands) --> <imscp:manifest xmlns:imscp="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imscp_v1p1" xmlns:imsld="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imsld_v1p0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imscp_v1p1 imscp_v1p1.xsd http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imsld_v1p0 IMS_LD_Level_B.xsd" identifier="Integration-Example"> <imscp:organizations> <imsld:learning-design identifier="LD-Integration-Example" uri="" level="B"> … </imsld:learning-design> </imscp:organizations> <imscp:resources> <imscp:resource identifier="R-Simple" type="webcontent"> <imscp:file href="simple.xml"/> </imscp:resource> <imscp:resource identifier="Question_1" type="imsqti_item_xmlv2p0" href="choice_01.xml"> <imscp:file href="choice_01.xml"/> <imscp:file href="sign.png"/> </imscp:resource> <imscp:resource identifier="Question_2" type="imsqti_item_xmlv2p0" href="choice_02.xml"> <imscp:file href="choice_02.xml"/> <imscp:file href="sign2.png"/> </imscp:resource> <imscp:resource identifier="Question_3" type="imsqti_item_xmlv2p0" href="choice_03.xml"> <imscp:file href="choice_03.xml"/> <imscp:file href="sign3.png"/> </imscp:resource> <imscp:resource identifier="R-Feedback" type="webcontent"> <imscp:file href="feedback.xml"/> </imscp:resource> </imscp:resources> </imscp:manifest>
In this example, the three resources are referenced from a single environment associated with a single learning activity:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!-- edited with XMLSPY v5 rel. 4 U (http://www.xmlspy.com) by Colin Tattersall (Open University of the Netherlands) --> <imscp:manifest xmlns:imscp="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imscp_v1p1" xmlns:imsld="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imsld_v1p0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imscp_v1p1 imscp_v1p1.xsd http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imsld_v1p0 IMS_LD_Level_B.xsd" identifier="Integration-Example"> <imscp:organizations> <imsld:learning-design identifier="LD-Integration-Example" uri="" level="B"> … <imsld:activities> <imsld:learning-activity isvisible="true" identifier="LA-Signpost"> <imsld:title>Complete the question show in the environment</imsld:title> <imsld:environment-ref ref="E-Simple-Environment"/> <imsld:activity-description> <imsld:title>Check your understanding of signposts</imsld:title> <imsld:item identifier="I-Simple" identifierref="R-Simple"/> </imsld:activity-description> …. </imsld:learning-activity> </imsld:activities> <imsld:environments> <imsld:environment identifier="E-Simple-Environment"> <imsld:title>Quick Test</imsld:title> <imsld:learning-object identifier="LO-QTI-Item1"> <imsld:title>Assign a sign</imsld:title> <imsld:item identifier="I-Question1" identifierref="Question_1"/> </imsld:learning-object> <imsld:learning-object identifier="LO-QTI-Item2"> <imsld:title>Assign a second sign</imsld:title> <imsld:item identifier="I-Question2" identifierref="Question_2"/> </imsld:learning-object> <imsld:learning-object identifier="LO-QTI-Item3"> <imsld:title>And try to assign a third one</imsld:title> <imsld:item identifier="I-Question3" identifierref="Question_3"/> </imsld:learning-object> </imsld:environment> </imsld:environments> </imsld:components> <imsld:method> … </imsld:method> </imsld:learning-design> </imscp:organizations> <imscp:resources> <imscp:resource identifier="R-Simple" type="webcontent"> <imscp:file href="simple.xml"/> </imscp:resource> <imscp:resource identifier="Question_1" type="imsqti_item_xmlv2p0" href="choice_01.xml"> <imscp:file href="choice_01.xml"/> <imscp:file href="sign.png"/> </imscp:resource> <imscp:resource identifier="Question_2" type="imsqti_item_xmlv2p0" href="choice_02.xml"> <imscp:file href="choice_02.xml"/> <imscp:file href="sign.png2"/> </imscp:resource> <imscp:resource identifier="Question_3" type="imsqti_item_xmlv2p0" href="choice_03.xml"> <imscp:file href="choice_03.xml"/> <imscp:file href="sign3.png"/> </imscp:resource> <imscp:resource identifier="R-Feedback" type="webcontent"> <imscp:file href="feedback.xml"/> </imscp:resource> </imscp:resources> </imscp:manifest>
1EdTech LD properties are defined for each outcome variable used in each resource file in the following manner, together with a property which will be used to hold the sum of the three:
<imsld:properties> <imsld:locpers-property identifier="Question_1.SCORE"> <imsld:title>The result for the first question</imsld:title> <imsld:datatype datatype="integer"/> <imsld:initial-value>0</imsld:initial-value> </imsld:locpers-property> <imsld:locpers-property identifier="Question_2.SCORE"> <imsld:title>The result for the second question</imsld:title> <imsld:datatype datatype="integer"/> <imsld:initial-value>0</imsld:initial-value> </imsld:locpers-property> <imsld:locpers-property identifier="Question_3.SIGNSCORE"> <imsld:title>The result for the third question</imsld:title> <imsld:datatype datatype="integer"/> <imsld:initial-value>0</imsld:initial-value> </imsld:locpers-property> <imsld:locpers-property identifier="Total"> <imsld:title>The total</imsld:title> <imsld:datatype datatype="integer"/> <imsld:initial-value>0</imsld:initial-value> </imsld:locpers-property> </imsld:properties>
Assuming a pedagogical approach of programmed instruction, the learner may only progress if the total score is three (i.e. if all three questions are answered correctly). This is handled in 1EdTech LD by indicating that the activity can only be completed when a property is set (
<imsld:activities> <imsld:learning-activity isvisible="true" identifier="LA-Signpost"> <imsld:title>Complete the question show in the environment</imsld:title> <imsld:environment-ref ref="E-Simple-Environment"/> <imsld:activity-description> <imsld:title>Check your understanding of signposts</imsld:title> <imsld:item identifier="I-Simple" identifierref="R-Simple"/> </imsld:activity-description> <imsld:complete-activity> <imsld:when-property-value-is-set> <imsld:property-ref ref="Total"/> <imsld:property-value>3</imsld:property-value> </imsld:when-property-value-is-set> </imsld:complete-activity> <imsld:on-completion> <imsld:feedback-description> <imsld:item identifier="I-Feedback" identifierref="R-Feedback"/> </imsld:feedback-description> </imsld:on-completion> </imsld:learning-activity> </imsld:activities>
The final step is to include an 1EdTech LD condition which sets the property Total to have the value 3 when all three questions have been answered correctly:
<imsld:conditions> <imsld:if> <imsld:and> <imsld:greater-than> <imsld:property-ref ref="Question_1.SCORE"/> <imsld:property-value>0</imsld:property-value> </imsld:greater-than> <imsld:greater-than> <imsld:property-ref ref="Question_2.SCORE"/> <imsld:property-value>0</imsld:property-value> </imsld:greater-than> <imsld:greater-than> <imsld:property-ref ref="Question_3.SIGNSCORE"/> <imsld:property-value>0</imsld:property-value> </imsld:greater-than> </imsld:and> </imsld:if> <imsld:then> <imsld:change-property-value> <imsld:property-ref ref="Total"/> <imsld:property-value>3</imsld:property-value> </imsld:change-property-value> </imsld:then> </imsld:conditions>
The property Total could equally have been given the type boolean and assigned a value of true once the total had been reached.
Full Manifest File
5. Simple Sequencing
The 1EdTech Simple Sequencing specification [IMS_SS] defines a method for representing the intended sequencing behavior of an authored learning experience. In other words, the way learning technology systems can sequence discrete learning activities in a consistent way.
Integrating individual assessment items with learning activities into a single activity tree controlled by simple sequencing rules suggests the need to map the information about the item session into the appropriate simple sequencing concepts. A detailed discussion of how this mapping might be implemented is beyond the scope of this document, though a number of experimental approaches are currently being discussed within the community. Readers may wish to monitor the output of the [APIS] project which is currently preparing more detailed recommendations.
To help facilitate easier integration of QTI items into activity trees authors are strongly encouraged to define an outcome variable with the name SCORE to be of a numeric type and to provide a value for the normalMaximum attribute of the outcomeDeclaration. Note particularly that scores will be normalized to the range [-1.0,1.0] for use with sequencing rules so care will need to be taken when designing items that generate scores with minimum obtainable values other than 0.
Simple sequencing makes use of the organization element within the content package. In order to treat an assessment item as an activity a suitable cp:item element will need to be included in the organization. As stated above, this is the only use of the organization element that this specification recommends when packaging QTI content.
Note that assessment items have resource type imsqti_item_xmlv2p0 and not webcontent. This indicates to the processing system that the resource is not suitable for handing directly to a web-browser for presentation. Instead, web-based systems that support the use of assessment items within activity trees must be capable of converting the assessment item into a suitable form for web delivery, processing the responses and collecting and mapping the resulting item outcomes. The version 2 data model for the itemBody profiles [XHTML] making this transformation considerably easier.
The CMI datamodel [CMI] is designed to provide a mechanism for the communication of data created at runtime, such as the outcomes of an assessment item, to a learning management system or other runtime service. A detailed description of how to map the contents of an item session into this model is beyond the scope of this specification.
Item authors are encouraged to follow the best practice described in Simple Sequencing to help facilitate interoperability through the CMI interface. A special predefined item variable completionStatus is defined to ease integration with CMI-based systems. Authors are reminded that adaptive items must maintain a value for this variable in the item's responseProcessing rules.
About This Document
|Title||1EdTech Question and Test Interoperability Integration Guide|
|Editor||Steve Lay (University of Cambridge)|
|Version Date||24 January 2005|
|Summary||This document describes the QTI Integration Guide specification.|
|Revision Information||24 January 2005|
|Purpose||This document has been approved by the 1EdTech Technical Board and is made available for adoption.|
|To register any comments or questions about this specification please visit: http://www.imsglobal.org/developers/ims/imsforum/categories.cfm?catid=23|
List of Contributors
The following individuals contributed to the development of this document:
|Niall Barr||CETIS||Joshua Marks||McGraw-Hill|
|Sam Easterby-Smith||Canvas Learning||David Poor||McGraw-Hill|
|Jeanne Ferrante||ETS||Greg Quirus||ETS|
|Pierre Gorissen||SURF||Niall Sclater||CETIS|
|Regina Hoag||ETS||Colin Smythe||1EdTech|
|Christian Kaefer||McGraw-Hill||GT Springer||Texas Instruments|
|John Kleeman||Question Mark||Colin Tattersall||OUNL|
|Steve Lay||UCLES||Rowin Young||CETIS|
|Jez Lord||Canvas Learning|
|Version No.||Release Date||Comments|
|Base Document 2.0||09 March 2004||The first version of the QTI Item v2.0 specification.|
|Public Draft 2.0||07 June 2004||The Public Draft version 2.0 of the QTI Item Specification.|
|Final 2.0||24 January 2005||The Final version 2.0 of the QTI specification.|
1EdTech Consortium, Inc. ("1EdTech/GLC") is publishing the information contained in this 1EdTech Question and Test Interoperability Integration Guide ("Specification") for purposes of scientific, experimental, and scholarly collaboration only.
1EdTech/GLC makes no warranty or representation regarding the accuracy or completeness of the Specification.
This material is provided on an "As Is" and "As Available" basis.
The Specification is at all times subject to change and revision without notice.
It is your sole responsibility to evaluate the usefulness, accuracy, and completeness of the Specification as it relates to you.
1EdTech/GLC would appreciate receiving your comments and suggestions.
Please contact 1EdTech/GLC through our website at http://www.imsglobal.org
Please refer to Document Name: 1EdTech Question and Test Interoperability Integration Guide Revision: 24 January 2005