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IMS Learner Information Package Accessibility for LIP Information Model

Version 1.0 Final Specification

Copyright © 2003 IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The IMS Logo is a trademark of IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc.
Document Name: IMS Learner Information Package Accessibility for LIP Information Model
Revision: 18 June 2003

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Table of Contents


1. Introduction
     1.1 Overview
     1.2 IMS ACCLIP Components
     1.3 Accessibility for LIP and Other Specifications
     1.4 Future Meta-Data Work
     1.5 Context, Scope, and Assumptions
           1.5.1 Context
           1.5.2 Scope
           1.5.3 Assumptions
     1.6 Nomenclature
     1.7 Abbreviations

2. Information Model
     2.1 Inherited LIP Meta-data
     2.2 Changes to the <accessibility> Element Formatting
           2.2.1 The 'usage' Information Model
           2.2.2 The <accessForAll> Information Model
           2.2.3 The <context> Information Model
           2.2.4 The <application> Information Model
           2.2.5 The <display> Information Model
           2.2.6 The <control> Information Model
           2.2.7 The <content> Information Model
     2.3 Changes to the <eligibility> Element

3. Object Model for Accessibility Preferences
     3.1 Path Specification
     3.2 Error Definition
     3.3 accessForAll Class
           3.3.1 Data Structures
           3.3.2 Methods
     3.4 Context Class
           3.4.1 Data Structures
           3.4.2 Methods
     3.5 Display Class
           3.5.1 Data Structures
           3.5.2 Methods
     3.6 Control Class
           3.6.1 Data Structures
           3.6.2 Methods
     3.7 Content Class
           3.7.1 Data Structures
           3.7.2 Methods

4. Extensibility
     4.1 Extensibility Statement

5. Conformance

Appendix A - Glossary

About This Document
     List of Contributors

Revision History

Index


1. Introduction

1.1 Overview

Accessibility for LIP (ACCLIP) provides a means to describe how learners can interact with an on-line learning environment based on their preferences and needs. These preferences will likely have a considerable impact on the user interface of learning delivery, tools, and managers and how content is selected. Two new elements (plus sub-elements) have been added: <accessForAll> is added, <disability> is deprecated, and <accommodation> has been added to <eligibility> in the LIP Information Model.

The <accessForAll> element defines accessibility preferences that were left for future work in the IMS Learner Information Package (LIP) specification version 1.0. The "accessibility" data structure includes the following elements: <language>, <preference>, <eligibility>, and <disability> in the LIP. This specification adds the <accessForAll> element under <accessibility> because it is intended to address the needs of learners beyond those with disabilities. The <disability> element is deprecated henceforth.

As the name implies, <accessForAll> is meant to serve the needs and preferences of all users, not only those with a disability. In this model, accessibility extends beyond disability to benefit users in learning situations which require alternative modes of use, such as in an extremely noisy environment where captions are needed for a video or a "hands-busy, eyes-busy" application like just-in-time training while repairing an aircraft engine. The user preferences that have been defined herein will aid the user in displaying learning material in the style best suited to their particular needs and in specifying an interface that they can interact with effectively which allows the accessible display and control of the learning material.

The purpose of <accessForAll> is to allow information to be gathered from users regarding their needs and preferences so that the user interface and content can be appropriately adapted. Students with disabilities may have specific requirements for the format in which information is presented and the way in which they provide input to the system. For example, learners can specify whether they require use of a screen reader with speech, require use of a screen reader with a Braille display, or prefer one but can optionally use the other.

The information collected in <accessForAll> is associated with the student's functional abilities and the assistive technology or other non-standard technology in use as well as other user preferences (a functional approach), rather than with the name and other details of the disability (a medical approach). If the structure were based on information about users' disabilities it would still need to address their functional abilities at some stage, as it is this information that is needed by learning systems to adapt content and navigation. A medical approach would exclude many of the details that the system would require. One example would be a user with a learning disability: because learning disabilities are so varied, that classification does not capture the range of options that can be offered in a functional description. Another example would be the preferences of a blind user: knowing that a user is blind (the medical terminology of the disability) does not indicate whether or not they can read Braille and whether they need output to a Braille display or to a screen reader with speech; only a functional approach can accommodate this. Many users with disabilities and users with alternate preferences will require the user interface to be compatible with the assistive or non-standard technology that they use, so <accessForAll> focuses on the hardware and software used by the user.

In addition to the <accessForAll> element, an extension to the LIP <eligibility> section is included here. The <accommodation> element allows a description of the accommodations made for interactions with a particular learning object (or set of them). Also included is a means to represent who authorized this accommodation, when it was authorized and when it expires. These extensions represent the start of a more systematic approach to describe eligibility and accommodations.

Learning technology is moving toward a more service oriented approach to defining what is available to systems, applications, and users. As such, Accessibility for LIP includes an object model which defines an Accessibility Preference Manager, which is part of a larger abstract Profile Manager. The Profile Manager was defined after the creation of the LIP as part of the IMS Abstract Framework documents. This document is an early attempt to define some aspects of a profile manager, i.e., those which deal with accessibility preferences. The object model attempts to go beyond a data model of interoperability by defining which pieces of the <accessForAll> data structure can be accessed independently. This, in turn, allows applications to be optimized by drawing on the preferences needed to adapt the user interface and content according to situational context.

1.2 IMS ACCLIP Components

The ACCLIP documents deal only with accessibility preferences. They are a subset of the whole IMS Learning Information Package (LIP), described in the following set of interrelated documents:

  • Accessibility for LIP Information Model (this document) - the normative reference that defines the data elements needed to represent accessibility preferences in a LIP Profile. The document also describes a set of services that provide accessibility support via preferences included in a Learner Information Package. It includes examples of the kinds of transactions that are likely to occur with a Profile Manager and the objects associated with it. This portion of the document uses the terminology and structures defined by the IMS Abstract Framework document.
  • Accessibility for LIP XML Schema Binding - describes how the information model is represented as additional elements in the Learner Information Package XML Schema set.
  • Accessibility for LIP Best Practice Guide - describes considerations and examples for using the accessibility preferences defined in the Information Model. This includes examples drawn from the ACCLIP Use Cases.
  • Accessibility for LIP Use Cases - describes use cases from which requirements used as the basis for Accessibility for LIP development.

1.3 Accessibility for LIP and Other Specifications

ACCLIP provides a means to describe how learners prefer to interact with an on-line learning environment. These preferences will likely have a considerable impact on the user interface of learning delivery, tools, and managers and the content delivered by them.

The need to identify and access alternative forms of content for accessibility purposes has been identified. Currently, there are limited provisions for this in the IMS Content Packaging specification. Selection of alternative content forms also has an impact on learning activity sequencing as defined in the IMS Simple Sequencing specification. Accessibility preferences will likely have an impact on how assessments are delivered. These are not currently included in either QTI or this specification. Similarly, Learning Design has the need to identify alternative content, but has no specific provisions for it at this time.

1.4 Future Meta-Data Work

Besides providing a means to adapt user interfaces to the needs of a particular user, accessibility preferences can also be used to guide the learner in selection of learning material that supports his or her style of learning and accessibility needs. A means is required to enable content to be marked in a manner that supports content search and selection based on accessibility preferences. This will be an extension to IMS Meta-Data but is outside of the scope of this project.

As a guide to this future work, the following meta-data information has been identified as likely to support the Access For All LIP extensions. This does not address the need to identify the accessibility of content using Meta-data.

 
No. Name Description Meta-Data Required
1 content Preferences regarding the content, specifying any desired transformations or enhancements. (container)
1.1 alternativesToVisual Modality preference. How to present visual content in a different modality. (container)
1.1.1 audioDescription Audio descriptions of visual elements Meta-data on audio description that includes pointer to primary video and a label of either "expanded" or "standard"
1.1.1.1 xml:lang Language to use for audio descriptions Meta-data specifying the language.of the audio description
1.1.2 altTextLang Language to use for alt text. Meta-data on alt-text identifying language of alt-text
1.1.3 longDescriptionLang Language to use for long descriptions Meta-data identifying language of long-desc.
1.1.4 colorAvoidance Preferences regarding the use of color in display of information. (container)
1.1.4.1 avoidRed Avoid the use of red to display information. Meta-data on content specifying that red is avoided or is used.
1.1.4.2 avoidRedGreen Avoid the use of red and green to display information. Meta-data on content specifying that red and green in combination are avoided or are used.
1.1.4.3 avoidBlueYellow Avoid the use of blue and yellow to display information. Meta-data on content specifying that blue and yellow in combination are avoided or are used.
1.1.4.4 avoidGreenYellow Avoid the use of green and yellow to display information. Meta-data on content specifying that green and yellow in combination are avoided or are used.
1.1.4.5 avoidOrange Avoid the use of orange to display information Meta-data on content specifying that orange is avoided or is used.
1.1.4.6 avoidRedBlack Avoid the use of red and black to display information Meta-data on content specifying that red and black in combination are avoided or are used.
1.1.4.7 avoidPurpleGray Avoid the use of purple and gray to display information. Meta-data on content specifying that purple and gray in combination are avoided or are used.
1.1.4.8 useMaximumContrastMonochrome Use monochromatic displays at maximum contrast. Meta-data on content specifying maximum contrast monochrome
1.2 alternativesToText Modality preference. How to present textual content in a different modality. (container)
1.2.1 graphicAlternative Use a graphic alternative if available Meta-data on content stating graphic system used (e.g., Bliss, PicSyms, etc.) also whether text is blended with graphics and whether animation is used
1.2.2 signLanguage Language to use for sign language alternatives Meta-data on sign language interpretation video with pointer to primary text and identification of language used
1.3 alternativesToAuditory How to present auditory content in a different modality. (container)
1.3.1 captionType What form of text caption is preferred. (container)
1.3.1.2 verbatim Enable verbatim captions which may include descriptions of sound effects.
Mutually exclusive with reducedReadingLevel
Meta-data on caption that includes pointer to primary video, synchronization file if necessary and a label verbatim.
1.3.1.3 reducedReadingLevel Reduce the reading level.
Mutually exclusive with verbatim
Meta-data on caption that includes pointer to primary video, synchronization file if necessary and a label of reduced reading level.
1.3.1.4 reducedSpeed Reduce the speed of captions as expressed in a words -per -minute 'value' rate. This is handled by the interface; no metadata is needed.
1.3.1.4.2 captionRate Reduced rate of captions. This is handled by the interface; no metadata is needed.
1.3.1.5 enhancedCaption Enhance the captions to include more information. This includes the use of video layers to provide information about the paralinguistic content of speech, music, and other non-speech sounds. Meta-data on caption that includes pointer to primary video, synchronization file if necessary and a label of enhanced
1.3.2 signLanguage Language to use for sign language alternatives Meta-data on sign language interpretation video with pointer to primary video, audio or text and identification of language used
1.4 learnerScaffold Analogous to a bookbag, a scaffold is a place to carry common tools. Meta-data on learner scaffold specifying: dictionary, calculator
noteTaking, peerInteraction, abacus
thesaurus, spellchecker, homophoneChecker, mindMappingSoftware outlineTool.
1.5 personalStylesheet URI to a style sheet If URI provided in preferences no need for metadata but if stylesheets can be reused we may want to re-examine this
1.6 extraTime Allows the user to request extra time when viewing content or responding to requests for information, such as during a test. Expressed as a multiplier of the time allowed. This is handled by the interface; no metadata is needed.
1.7 structuralPresentation Settings for how the structure of the content is displayed. (container)
1.7.4 showTranscript Display a transcript of the audio presentation when available. Meta-data on transcript of audio pointing to primary content.
1.7.5 showNotes Display annotations (notes) when available. Meta-data on annotations with pointer to primary content annotated and synchronization or link file.

1.5 Context, Scope, and Assumptions

1.5.1 Context

The ACCLIP information contained here extends the IMS LIP v1.0 Specification by adding substantial descriptive material that define accessibility preferences. These new elements are intended to be completely compatible with all of the LIP work done previously, especially with regard to privacy, access, and information integrity.

This new work is also intended to be compatible with the terminology and structures defined by the IMS Abstract Framework. The Abstract Framework describes a layered system of services and how those services are accessed by higher level services, applications, and users.

1.5.2 Scope

The ACCLIP elements provide a means to describe how a learner desires to access online learning content and related applications via a set of preference elements. These elements are grouped into three main types: display information, control information, and content information. Taken together, they provide a way that allows a learner to create preferences in how content is delivered in a particular context.

Later development of Accessibility for LIP may include support for describing user characteristics independently of accessibility preferences. These characteristics may include descriptions of various conditions, abilities, etc. While the group felt that this was an important part of accessibility preferences, especially given an expressed business need, there was insufficient time to develop the safeguards needed to prevent these extensions from being misused. The ACCLIP recommends that this be considered for follow on work.

The <accommodation> element under the <eligibility> element allows one to specify accommodations for which a learner is eligible when using a learning object, particularly a test.

1.5.3 Assumptions

In designing the <accessForAll> element and sub-elements it is assumed that content to be presented to the learner is compliant with basic accessibility specifications delineated in the World Wide Web Consortium Web Accessibility Guidelines (W3C WCAG). Compliance with W3C WCAG priority 1 and 2 would insure that the presentation and control of text is transformable. This would negate the need to provide multiple static presentations of textual material to accommodate the varying needs of learners.

This document assumes that all users are likely to have accessibility preferences, not just individuals with disabilities. With the increasing variety of interface choices and environments in which on-line learning occurs, learners will need to be able to control how they interact. Some of these may be considered personal preferences, while others will be required to permit access to learning content in unusual environments such as noisy locations, hands free operation, etc.

It is assumed that learners will need different preferences at different times and locations.

Accessibility preferences are intended to describe aspects of a computer system (including networked systems) that can be adjusted to improve accessibility. It is not intended to address larger systems that may include physical location, other people, external processes, etc.

1.6 Nomenclature

Several of the definitions below were drawn from the IMS Abstract Framework Glossary, v1.0.

Access
An access is any action (such as a query or direct hyperlink) by either a human or machine enabling the retrieval of data.

Accessibility
Accessibility is concerned with ensuring that products and technologies are capable of supporting people with disabilities. The term disability is accepted in its broadest sense and so both physical and cognitive accessibility must be addressed.

Accommodation
Accommodation is a change from the default conditions (content, format, and/or administration procedure) that is intended to enable a learning object to fulfill its intended purpose for individuals who cannot use the learning object under default conditions. The term use is often used in the context of assessments and tests used by individuals with disabilities or other special populations. For example, the provision to use a spellchecker during examinations, or the provision of a private room for those students who may require the use of text-to-speech which may not be acceptable to use in an examination hall.

Learner Profile
A learner's profile is a collection of information about a learner. This information may include performance data, accessibility and language preferences, and other characteristics defined by the IMS LIP specification.

Learning Content Management System (LCMS)
An LCMS is a multi-user environment where learning developers can create, store, reuse, manage, and deliver digital learning content from a central object repository. LCMS products allow organizations to create and reuse units of digital instructional content. An LCMS manages the process of creating and delivering learning content, just as the names indicate.

Preference
An element or set of data which describes how a user desires to interact with a learning application or environment.

Profile Manager
A service that enables access and manipulation of a learner's profile, including a Life Long Learning Log or Life Long Learning Profile. This service enables a single point of management access to a profile that may be replicated and or distributed in partial form across many Profile Repositories.

Service Access Point
A service access point is an interface between two adjacent layers of the abstract framework. The SAP is an abstract representation of the service available through the interface and as such its implementation could be referred to as an API.

1.7 Abbreviations

The following abbreviations and acronyms are used in this document.

 
ACCLIP Accessibility for Learner Information Package
ADL Advanced Distributed Learning
AICC Aviation Industry CBT Committee
API Application Programming Interface
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ATRC Adaptive Technology Resource Centre, University of Toronto, Canada
CBT Computer Based Training
CMI Computer Managed Instruction
CPI Content Packaging Interchange
DTD Document Type Definition
IEEE Institute of Electronic & Electrical Engineering
ISO International Standards Organization
JTC Joint Technical Committee
LCMS Learning Content Management System
LIP IMS Learner Information Package
LTS Learning Technology System
LTSC Learning Technology Standards Committee
SCORM Shareable Content Object Reference Model
SS Simple Sequencing
W3C World Wide Web Consortium
XML Extensible Mark-up Language
XSD XML Schema Document

2. Information Model

The Accessibility for LIP Information Model extends the previous version of the IMS LIP by adding a new element under <accessibility> called <accessForAll>, by deprecating the <disability> element previously defined, and by adding a new element under <eligibility> called <accommodation>.

diagram showing old sub-elements of the LIP accessibility element

 

Figure 2.1 - Old Sub-elements of the LIP Accessibility Element.

diagram showing new sub-elements of the LIP accessibility element. Disability is grayed out and AccessForAll is added

 

Figure 2.2 - New Sub-elements of the LIP Accessibility Element.

2.1 Inherited LIP Meta-data

The Learner Information Package defined a set of meta-data elements to be associated with all LIP elements. Since <accessForAll> and <accommodation> are name spaced extensions of that specification, they both are required to support LIP meta-data, as well.

The learning information meta-data is broken into three categories:

  • Time Information: Time of creation and time of expiration of a piece of data; Temporal Information.
  • Index and Source: Supports a pair consisting of a source and an ID assigned by that source, a local index that is used for cross-referencing, and a URI; Referential Information.
  • Privacy and data protection information: Unstructured data to be determined by practice and implementation. Privacy Information.

All LIP and ACCLIP data elements have meta-data sub-elements with the exception of atomic elements that can always inherit their meta-data. The following information is excerpted from the IMS LIP v1.0.

 
No. Name Description Mult Data Type Value Space Default Value
1 contentype The data that is used to describe the contents of the learner information structures. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.1 referential Reference information that is used to uniquely identify the learner information and the data structures within it. [1..*]
 

 

 
1.1.1 sourcedid The initiating system's source identification for the learner information. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.1.1.1 source The name of the source system creating the learner information. [1] string
 

 
1.1.1.2 id A unique identifier for the learner information record assigned by the creating entity. [1] id
 

 
1.1.2 indexid A unique identifier for the actual data structure containing the learner information content. This identifier is persistent and so mapping tables should be maintained to allow the identifier to be used in subsequent transactions. [1] id
 

 
1.2 temporal Data describing time-based information about the data structure e.g. time of creation, date of expiry, etc. [0..*]
 

 

 
1.2.1 typename The type of temporal relationship. [0..1] string
 

 
1.2.2 temporalfield The fields defined to contain the temporal data structures. [0..*]
 

 

 
1.2.2.1 fieldlabel The field type that will contain the temporal definition data. [0..1] string
 

 
1.2.2.2 fielddata The field type that will contain the temporal data. [0..1] string
 

 
1.3 privacy Data that is to be used to describe the access to and to ensure the integrity of the learner information. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.3.1 privacyfield The fields defined to contain the privacy data structures. [0..*]
 

 

 
1.3.1.1 fieldlabel The field type that will contain the privacy definition data. [0..1] string
 

 
1.3.1.2 fielddata The field type that will contain the privacy data. [0..1] string
 

 
1.3.2 date Dates appropriate to the privacy information e.g. expiry. [0..*] date
 

 

See IMS Learner Information Package v1.0 for more information.

2.2 Changes to the <accessibility> Element Formatting

The ACCLIP Information Model defines user preferences in a hierarchy of data elements. The top level of this hierarchy has <accessForAll> at the root, which is a new element as a child of <accessibility>. The <disability> preference is no longer used and is deprecated.

XML Schema diagram showing context and the major preference containers: display, control, and content

2.2.1 The 'usage' Information Model

The term 'usage' applies to an attribute that many of the <accessForAll> elements include. It allows the user to specify that this element is required, preferred, optionally used, or not used. Interpretation of these terms may vary depending on the context of use and on the specific element the attribute is applied to. Some examples are given below. These terms are defined as follows:

  • required: The learner cannot use content or tools that do not provide this feature or allow this transformation.
  • preferred: The learner prefers content or tools that provide this feature or allow this transformation.
  • optionallyUse: The learner would use this setting if the content or tool they have selected for other reasons provides or allows it.
  • notUse: The learner cannot use content or tools that include this feature or require this transformation; this feature should be turned off if possible, or content that includes this feature should not be offered.

2.2.2 The <accessForAll> Information Model

The <accessForAll> element defines accessibility preferences for a user collected into named contexts.

 
No. Name Description Mult Data Type Value Space Default Value
1 accessForAll Root element that groups the user's accessibility preferences. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.1 context Defined below. [1..*]
 

 

 

2.2.3 The <context> Information Model

The <context> element defines a named preference set that allows learners to create multiple preference sets to suit varying conditions. The first context defined is considered the default context if none is specified.

A context may have an external context reference. If an external context is specified, preferences are used from the remote context definition. Context identifiers of the local and remotely defined context must be identical. Fully specified preference values included locally will override the externally defined ones. Locally defined container elements do not cause externally defined preferences to revert to defaults. Circular external references are not allowed. Multiple levels of external references are allowed.

 
No. Name Description Mult Data Type Value Space Default Value
1 context For defining different sets of preferences depending on different situations (e.g., time of day). [1..*]
 

 

 
1.1 identifier Identifies the context. [1] string unique user-assigned name
 
1.2 external A link to an external context definition which may be used as a group, or shared settings. Sub-elements contained in a context with an external reference override those in the externally defined context. The local and external identifiers must agree. [0..1] URI
 

 
1.3 language The user's preferred language for this context. [0..1] xml:lang ISO LanguageID ISO 639:1988 en
1.4 display Defined below. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.5 control Defined below. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.6 content Defined below [0..1]
 

 

 

2.2.4 The <application> Information Model

The <application> element allows application specific preferences to be defined. Each generic <display> and <control> preference elements have a corresponding <application> element referenced in the information model tables that follow.

 
No. Name Description Mult Data Type Value Space Default Value
1 application 1. Declare a specific technology that implements screen enhancement.
2. Optionally allow for additional settings for that specific technology.
[0..*]
 
.
 
1.1 name The name of the application to use, such as "JAWS" [1] string
 

 
1.2 version The version of the application to use, such as "1.0" [0..1] string
 

 
1.3 priority How high a priority this is. [1] integer positive, nonzero
1 is the highest priority.

 
1.4 param Name/value pair for specifying a setting for a specific technology. These values are understood only by their corresponding applications. [0..*]
 

 

 
1.4.1 name An application specific parameter name. [1] string
 
-
1.4.2 value An application specific parameter value. [0..1] string
 
-

2.2.5 The <display> Information Model

The <display> element allows preferences in how material is displayed or communicated to a learner.

 
No. Name Description Mult Data Type Value Space Default Value
1 display Display technology preferences: how the user interface and content should be presented. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.1 screenReader Display technology that presents text using a speech synthesizer. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.1.1 screenReaderGeneric Common settings for screen readers. [1]
 

 

 
1.1.1.1 link How to present a hyperlink. The screen reader can say the word, 'Link', or speak in a different voice, or use a sound effect, or do nothing special. It can also do more than one of these, such as say 'Link' and use a sound effect, so more than one link element is permitted. [1..*] vocabulary speakLink
differentVoice
soundEffect
none
speakLink
 
1.1.1.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.2 speechRate Words per minute. Applications which do not support either the high end of the range or the low should play at the maximum or minimum rate possible. [1] integer [1 - 1000]
 
180
 
1.1.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.3 pitch The pitch of the voice. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "low"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "high"
0.5
 
1.1.1.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.4 volume The loudness of the voice. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "quiet"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "loud"
0.5
 
1.1.1.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.2 application Defined above. [0..*]
 

 
-
1.2 screenEnhance Technology that makes the display easier to see. For example, display text in a larger font, and/or with greater contrast. Screen magnifiers are a type of screen enhancer. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.2.1 screenEnhanceGeneric Common settings for screen enhancers. [1]
 

 

 
1.2.1.1 fontFace What type of font to be used in a screen enhancer. [1]
 

 

 
1.2.1.1.1 fontName A font name. [0..*] string
 

 
1.2.1.1.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.1.2 genericFace One of the five defined generics. [1] vocabulary serif
sansSerif
monospaced
cursive
fantasy
sansSerif
1.2.1.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.2 fontSize Point size of the font. [1] positiveInteger
 
12
1.2.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.3 foregroundColor The foreground color. This is often used as the color of text. [1] color RGB plus Alpha ff000000 (black)
1.2.1.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.4 backgroundColor The background color. The background color shall not be the same color as the foreground color. [1] color RGB plus Alpha ffffffff (white)
 
1.2.1.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.5 highlightColor The highlight color to be used. The highlight color shall not be the same as the foreground or background colors. [1] color RGB plus Alpha ffff0000 (red)
1.2.1.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.6 cursorSize Size of the cursor. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "standard"
0.5 = "large"
1.0 = "extra large"
0.5
 
1.2.1.6.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.7 cursorColor The color of the cursor. [1] color RGB plus Alpha fffffff (white)
 
1.2.1.7.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.8 cursorTrails Length of cursor trail where 0.0 is no trail at all and 1.0 is the maximum allowed by the system. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "no trail"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "longest"
0.5
1.2.1.8.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.2 invertColorChoice Invert the choice of colors for better readability. [1] boolean
 
false
1.2.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.3 tracking What the screen enhancer tracks [0..1]
 

 

 
1.2.3.1 mouse Track the mouse. [1] boolean
 
true
1.2.3.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.3.2 caret Track the caret (text insertion point) [1] boolean
 
true
1.2.3.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.3.3 focus Track the focus. [1] boolean
 
true
1.2.3.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.4 magnification Magnify the screen content by an integer amount. The default of 1x means no magnification. [0..1] integer [1 - 20] 1
1.2.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.5 application 1. Declare a specific technology that implements screen enhancement.
2. Optionally allow for additional settings for that specific technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above.
 
1.3 textReadingHighlight Highlight the text as it is read by a speech synthesizer. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.3.1 textReadingHighlightGeneric Common settings for text reading with highlighting. [1]
 

 

 
1.3.1.1 speechRate Words per minute. Applications which do not support either the high end of the range or the low should play at the maximum or minimum rate possible. [1] integer [1 - 1000] 180
1.3.1.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.2 pitch The pitch of the voice. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "low"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "high"
0.5
1.3.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.3 volume The loudness of the voice. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "quiet"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "loud"
0.5
 
1.3.1.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.4 highlight Highlight by word, line, sentence, or by paragraph. [1] vocabulary word
line
sentence
paragraph
word
 
1.3.1.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.5 speakAltText Speak the alternative text. [1] boolean
 
true
1.3.1.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.6 speakWhenTabbing Speak controls such as links, buttons, form elements, etc. when tabbing. [1] boolean
 
true
1.3.1.6.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.7 readingUnit Unit of reading to be spoken [1] vocabulary word
line
sentence
paragraph
word
1.3.1.7.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.2 application 1. Declare a specific technology that implements a text reader that highlights.
2. Optionally allow for additional settings for that specific technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above. -
1.4 braille A Braille display is a device that presents text, and other information, using Braille. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.4.1 brailleGeneric Common settings for Braille displays. [1]
 

 

 
1.4.1.1 grade Grade of Braille to use. Grade 2 supports contractions and other possible extensions. Grade 1 corresponds to "uncontracted" Braille, and Grade 2 corresponds to "contracted" Braille. [1] vocabulary 1
2
uncontracted
contracted
1
 
1.4.1.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.1.2 numDots Number of dots in a cell. [1] integer 6
8
(6 or 8)
6
1.4.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.1.3 numCells Number of active cells. [1] integer [8 - 120] 80
1.4.1.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.1.4 markHighlight Mark highlighted text. [1] boolean
 
false
1.4.1.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.1.5 markBold Mark bold text. [1] boolean
 
false
1.4.1.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.1.6 markUnderline Mark underlined text. [1] boolean
 
false
1.4.1.6.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.1.7 markItalic Mark italic text. [1] boolean
 
false
1.4.1.7.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.1.8 markStrikeout Mark strikeout text. [1] boolean
 
false
1.4.1.8.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.1.9 markColor Mark colored text. [1] boolean
 
false
1.4.1.9.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.1.10 dotPressure Back pressure on Braille pins. The pins depress when touched. This pressure controls reading sensitivity. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "low"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "high"
0.5
 
1.4.1.10.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.1.11 statusCell Presence or location of the status. [1] vocabulary off
left
right
off
 
1.4.1.11.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.2 application 1. Declare a specific technology that implements a Braille display.
2. Optionally allow for additional settings for that specific technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above. -
1.5 tactile Technology that uses touch or haptics as the means of rendering information. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.5.1 tactileGeneric Common settings for tactile displays. [1]
 

 

 
1.5.2 application 1. Declare a specific technology that implements a tactile display.
2. Optionally allow for additional settings for that specific technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above.
 
1.6 visualAlert Technology that provides visual alternatives for audio alerts. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.6.1 visualAlertGeneric Common settings for visual alerts. [1]
 

 

 
1.6.1.1 systemSounds Provide visual alternatives to system alert sounds by flashing the desktop, the active window, or caption bar. [1]
Note that these are the Windows options. Mac OSX offers only "flash screen" prob equiv to "desktop".
vocabulary none
desktop
window
captionBar
none
 
1.6.1.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.6.1.2 captions Provide captions for system-generated audio. [1] boolean
 
false
 
1.6.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.6.2 application 1. Declare a specific technology that implements visual alerts.
2. Optionally allow for additional settings for that specific technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above. -
1.7 structuralPresentation Settings for how the structure of the content is displayed. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.7.1 contentDensity How much detail to provide at any given time. This is intended to support automatic transformation by the system or application. [0..1] vocabulary overview
detailed
overview
 
1.7.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.7.2 contentViews Display content using images or text. System switches between display of images vs. the altText or longDesc text associated with it. [0..1] vocabulary imageIntensive
textIntensive
imageIntensive
 
1.7.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.7.3 showLinks Display a persistent separate list of hyperlinks present in the content. [0..1] boolean
 
false
 
1.7.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.7.4 showTranscript Display a transcript of the audio presentation when available. [0..1] boolean
 
false
 
1.7.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.7.5 showNotes Display annotations (notes) when available. [0..1] boolean
 
true
 
1.7.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.7.6 windowLayout How windows should be displayed. Tiled means windows are next to each other, while overlap means that the windows may overlap. frontMost indicates that the active window should be on top. [0..1] vocabulary tiled
overlap
frontMost
frontMost
1.7.6.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.8 futureTechnology Allows for extensibility. Use to declare settings for future display technologies. [0..*]
 

 

 
1.8.1 application 1. Declare a specific future technology.
2. Optionally allow for additional settings for that technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above.
 

2.2.6 The <control> Information Model

The <control> element allows preferences to be defined for how the learner interacts with a system and responds to it.

 
No. Name Description Mult Data Type Value Space Default Value
1 control Technologies that provide for alternative ways of controlling a device. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.1 keyboardEnhanced Accessibility enhancements for a standard keyboard. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.1.1 keyboardEnhancedGeneric Common keyboard enhancements. [1]
 

 

 
1.1.1.1 alphaLayoutInternal Layout of the alphabetic keyboard. This element is mutually exclusive with alphaLayoutExternal. [0..1] vocabulary standard
sequential
frequency
standard
 
1.1.1.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.2 alphaLayoutExternal External file that describes the layout. This element is mutually exclusive with alphaLayoutInternal. [0..1] URI
 
-
 
1.1.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.2 stickyKeys Modifier keys, such as shift,
remain active when pressed.
[1] boolean
 
true
 
1.1.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.2.2 playSound If stickyKeys is on, play a sound when a modifier key is pressed. [0..1] boolean
 
false
1.1.1.2.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.3 repeatKeys Sets whether keys auto-repeat when held down. [1] boolean
 
true
1.1.1.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.3.2 autoDelay If repeat-keys is on, sets how long before auto-repeat engages. [0..1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "short"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "long"
0.5
 
1.1.1.3.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.3.2.2 autoRate The auto-repeat rate. [0..1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "slow"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "fast"
0.5
 
1.1.1.3.2.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.4 slowKeys Specified that slow keys being used. [1] boolean
 
true
1.1.1.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.4.1 slowKeysInterval Specifies interval before a key press is detected. [0..1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "slow"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "fast"
0.2
 
1.1.1.4.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.5 debounce Specifies that debouncing is being used to ignore multiple, rapid keystrokes on a single key. [1] boolean
 
false
1.1.1.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.1.5.2 debounceInterval If debounce is being used (see above), this sSpecifies the interval in seconds in during which repeated keystrokes presses of the same character key are ignored. [0..1] float [0.0 - 5.0] 0.5
1.1.1.5.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.2 application 1. Declare a specific technology that implements keyboard enhancements.
2. Optionally allow for additional settings for that specific technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above. -
1.2 onscreenKeyboard Virtual keyboard displayed on a screen used to control other applications. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.2.1 onscreenKeyboardGeneric Common settings for onscreen keyboards. [1]
 

 

 
1.2.1.1 alphaLayoutInternal Layout of the alphabetic keyboard. This element is mutually exclusive with alphaLayoutExternal [0..1] vocabulary standard
sequential
frequency
standard
1.2.1.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.2 alphaLayoutExternal External file that describes the layout. This element is mutually exclusive with alphaLayoutInternal. [0..1] URI
 

 
1.2.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.3 pointAndClick Selection method.
User points toclicks an onscreen key and clicks on it. This element is mutually exclusive with pointAndDwell, autoScanning, inverseScanning, directedScanning, codeSelection.
[0..1]
 

 

 
1.2.1.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.3.2 switchDelay Delay in seconds before recognizing a switch press. [1] float [0.0 - 30.0] 0
1.2.1.3.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.4 pointAndDwell Selection method.
Hover over an onscreen key and dwell on it to select it. This element is mutually exclusive with pointAndClick, autoScanning, inverseScanning, directedScanning, codeSelection.
[0..1]
 

 

 
1.2.1.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.4.2 dwellTime Time in seconds to dwell in order to deem that a selection has been made. This is required if directSelection is set to pointAndDwell and is ignored if not. [1] float [0.0 - 3.0] 0.5
 
1.2.1.4.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.5 autoScanning Selection method. Automatically scan keys on the keyboard.
This element is mutually exclusive with pointAndClick, pointAndDwell, inverseScanning, directedScanning, codeSelection.
[0..1]
 

 

 
1.2.1.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.5.1 scanSpeed Scanning speed in seconds before the system moves on to the next item or row. scanSpeed may not be less than scanSwitchDelay. [1] float [0.0 - 30.0] 0.0
1.2.1.5.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.5.2 scanSwitchDelay Delay in seconds before initiating scan. [1] float [0.0 - 30.0] 0.0
1.2.1.5.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.5.3 switchType Type of switch or port input used. [1] vocabulary mouse
game
serial
usb
firewire
infrared
bluetooth
mouse
1.2.1.5.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.5.4 autoScanInitDelay Delay in seconds before initiating scan. [1] float positive unbounded 0.0
1.2.1.5.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.5.5 autoScanRepeat Number of times to repeat a row before escaping to a higher level and continuing the scan. [1] integer [1 - 5] or "infinity" 1
1.2.1.5.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.5.6 switchAssignment Responsibility of a numbered switch.

Note: there must be one switchAssignment of value "select."
[1..*] vocabulary select
cancel
scan
select
1.2.1.5.6.1 number The switch number. [1] positive integer
 

 
1.2.1.5.6.2 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.6 inverseScanning Selection method. Scan keys on the keyboard while a switch is engaged.
This element is mutually exclusive with pointAndClick, pointAndDwell, autoScanning, directedScanning, codeSelection.
[0..1]
 

 

 
1.2.1.6.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.6.1 scanSpeed Scanning speed in seconds before the system moves on to the next item or row. scanSpeed may not be less than scanSwitchDelay. [1] float [0.0 - 30.0] 0.0
1.2.1.6.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.6.2 scanSwitchDelay Delay in seconds before initiating scan. [1] float [0.0 - 30.0] 0.0
1.2.1.6.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.6.3 switchType Type of switch or port input used. [1] vocabulary mouse
game
serial
usb
firewire
infrared
bluetooth
mouse
1.2.1.6.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.6.4 dwellTime Time in seconds to dwell in order to deem that a selection has been made. [0..1] float [0.0 - 3.0] 0.5
1.2.1.6.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.6.5 switchAssignment Responsibility of a numbered switch.

Note: there must be one switchAssignment of value "scan." If no switchAssignment is of value "select," keys are selected by dwelling.
[1..*] vocabulary select
cancel
scan
select
1.2.1.6.5.1 number The switch number. [1] positive integer
 

 
1.2.1.6.5.1.2 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.7 directedScanning Selection method. User directs the scanning with switches.
This element is mutually exclusive with pointAndClick, pointAndDwell, autoScanning, inverseScanning, codeSelection.
[0..1]
 

 

 
1.2.1.7.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.7.1 scanSpeed Scanning speed in seconds before the system moves on to the next item or row. scanSpeed may not be less than scanSwitchDelay. [1] float [0.0 - 30.0] 0.0
1.2.1.7.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.7.2 scanSwitchDelay Delay in seconds before initiating scan. [1] float [0.0 - 30.0] 0.0
1.2.1.7.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.7.3 switchType Type of switch or port input used. [1] vocabulary mouse
game
serial
usb
firewire
infrared
bluetooth
mouse
1.2.1.7.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.7.4 dwellTime Time in seconds to dwell in order to deem that a selection has been made. [0..1] float [0.0 - 3.0] 0.5
1.2.1.7.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.7.5 switchAssignment Binding of a numbered switch.

Note: there must be one switchAssignment defined for "scan" or two switchAssignment's defined for horizontal and vertical movement. If no switchAssignment is of value "select," keys are selected by dwelling.
[1..*] vocabulary select
cancel
right
left
up
down
horizontal
vertical
scan
select
1.2.1.7.5.1 number The switch number. [1] positive integer
 

 
1.2.1.7.5.2 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.8 codeSelection Selection method. User controls the keyboard through input codes signaled through a switch.

Note: If a user selects codeSelection, codedInput must also be present within the implementation and the codeSelection values are specified there.
This element is mutually exclusive with pointAndClick, pointAndDwell, autoScanning, inverseScanning, directedScanning.
[0..1] .
 

 
1.2.1.9 keyHeight Key height as a percentage of the screen height. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where 0.0 maps to 0% and 1.0 maps to 100%.
0.03

 
1.2.1.9.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.10 keyWidth Key width as a percentage of screen width. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where 0.0 maps to 0% and 1.0 maps to 100%.
0.04
 
1.2.1.10.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.11 keySpacing Key spacing as a percentage of screen width. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where 0.0 maps to 0% and 1.0 maps to 100%.
0.0
 
1.2.1.11.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.1.12 sound Whether sound feedback is played when a key is selected. [1] boolean
 
true
1.2.1.12.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.2 application Declare a specific technology that implements an onscreen keyboard.
Optionally allow for additional settings for that specific technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above. -
1.3 alternativeKeyboard Hardware that functions like a standard keyboard, but is a separate external device. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.3.1 alternativeKeyboardGeneric Common settings for alternative keyboards. [1]
 

 

 
1.3.1.1 alphaLayoutInternal Layout of the alphabetic keyboard. This element is mutually exclusive with alphaLayoutExternal. [0..1] vocabulary standard
sequential
frequency
standard
 
1.3.1.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.2 alphaLayoutExternal External file that describes the layout. This element is mutually exclusive with alphaLayoutInternal. [0..1] URI
 
-
 
1.3.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.2 stickyKeys Modifier keys, such as shift, stick when pressed. [1] boolean
 
true
 
1.3.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.3 repeatKeys Sets whether keys auto-repeat when held down. [1] boolean
 
true
 
1.3.1.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.3.2 autoRepeatDelay If repeat-keys is on, time before auto-repeat engages. [0..1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "short"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "long"
0.5
 
1.3.1.3.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.3.3 autoRepeatRate Auto-repeat rate. [0..1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "slow"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "fast"
0.5
 
1.3.1.3.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.4 slowKeys Specifies that slow keys are used. [1] boolean
 
true
1.3.1.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.4.2 slowKeysInterval Specifies how longtime before a key press is detected. [0..1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "slow"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "fast"
0.2
 
1.3.1.4.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.5 debounce Specifies that multiple, rapid strokes of a single key are ignored. [1] boolean
 
false
1.3.1.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.5.2 debounceInterval Specifies the interval in seconds in during which repeated keystrokes of the same character are ignored. [0..1] float [0.0 - 5.0] 0.5
1.3.1.5.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.6 resizableKeys This element is true if the alternative keyboard is resizable (such as a membrane keyboard). Otherwise, false. [1] boolean
 
false
1.3.1.6.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.6.2 keyWidth Width of key in millimeters. [0..1] positive integer
 
10
 
1.3.1.6.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.6.3 keyHeight Height of key in millimeters. [0..1] integer [1 - 100] 10
1.3.1.6.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.6.4 keySpacing Space between keys in millimeters. [0..1] integer [0 - 100] 0
1.3.1.6.41 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.2 application Declare a specific technology that implements an alternative keyboard.
Optionally allow for additional settings for that specific technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above.
 
1.4 mouseEmulation Replacement for a standard mouse, such as a keyboard, voice recognition, switch, or other non-pointing device. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.4.1 mouseEmulationGeneric Common settings for mouse emulators. [1]
 

 

 
1.4.1.1 speed Speed at which the mouse cursor moves across the screen. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "slow"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "fast"
0.5
 
1.4.1.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.1.2 acceleration Initial acceleration of the mouse cursor from rest to its closing speed. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "slow"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "fast"
0.5
 
1.4.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.1.3 device What to use to emulate the mouse. Single switches can be used to iteratively scan and select a point on the display. [1] vocabulary keypad
keyboard
switch
voice
keypad
 
1.4.1.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4.2 application Declare a specific technology that implements a mouse emulator.
Optionally allow for additional settings for that specific technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above.
 
1.5 alternativePointing Technology that replaces the mouse with a different pointing device, such as a trackball or eyegaze tracker. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.5.1 alternativePointingGeneric Common settings for alternative pointing devices. [1]
 

 

 
1.5.1.1 relativePointing Settings for a relative pointing device. This element is mutually exclusive with absolutePointing. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.5.1.1.1 speed Speed at which the pointing device cursor moves across the screen. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "slow"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "fast"
0.5
 
1.5.1.1.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.5.1.1.2 acceleration Initial acceleration of the mouse cursor from rest to its closing speed. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "slow"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "fast"
0.5
 
1.5.1.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.5.1.1 absolutePointing Use an absolute pointing device, not a relative one. This element is mutually exclusive with relativePointing. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.5.1.2 handedness Specifies left-handed or right-handed device. [1] vocabulary left
right
right
 
1.5.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.5.1.3 doubleClickSpeed clickSpeed at which two successive clicks must occur in order to be registered as a double click. [1] float [0.1 - 1.0]
 
0.4
 
1.5.1.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.5.1.4 buttonAssignmentExternal Button assignment for the device as fetched from a file. This element is mutually exclusive with buttonAssignmentInternal [0..1] URI
 
-
1.5.1.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.5.2 application Declare a specific technology that implements an alternative pointing device.
Optionally allow for additional settings for that specific technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above. -
1.6 voiceRecognition Control settings for spoken commands and dictation. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.6.1 voiceRecognitionGeneric Generic setttings for voice recognition. [1]
 

 

 
1.6.1.1 microphoneGain Sensitivity of the microphone. [1] float [0.0 - 1.0]
where,
0.0 = "low"
0.5 = "medium"
1.0 = "high"
0.5
 
1.6.1.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.6.1.2 controlsWindow Show or hide a controller window. [1] boolean
 
true
1.6.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.6.1.3 dictation Specifies whether or not dictation is in use. [1] boolean
 
false
1.6.1.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.6.1.3.2 voiceProfileExternal Optional external user defined voice profile file. [0..1] URI
 

 
1.6.1.3.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.6.1.4 commandControl Specifies whether or not voice recognition is able to control the system through commands to it. Command and control settings: context, confirmation feedback, and mouse control. [1] boolean
 
false
1.6.1.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.6.1.4.2 vocabulary Default vocabulary for commands. [0..1] vocabulary context
natural
context
 
1.6.1.4.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.6.1.4.3 feedback Confirmation feedback (audio) for recognized commands. [0..1] boolean
 
true
 
1.6.1.4.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.6.1.4.4 mouse Use commands to control the mouse. [0..1] boolean
 
true
1.6.1.4.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.6.2 application Declare a specific technology that implements voice recognition.
Optionally allow for additional settings for that specific technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above.
 
1.7 codedInput Control methods that use a code to select the desired input. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.7.1 code Code used to represent possible inputs [1] vocabulary morse
quartering
eightCell
chordic
morse
1.7.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.7.2 codeSwitchNumber Number of switches or keys available to enter the code. [1] integer [1 - 150] 2
1.7.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.7.3 codeTermination Signal at the end of a code for variable-length codes. [1] vocabulary switch
timed
switch
1.7.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.7.3.2 codeRate When code termination is timed, the time available to enter the code. This is only applicable when the code termination is "timed." [0..1] float [0.5 - 20] 3
1.7.3.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.7.4 codeSelect When code is entered using on-screen keys, selects whether keys are selected by pointing and dwelling or pointing and activating the switch [1] vocabulary pointAndDwell
pointAndClick
pointAndClick
1.7.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.7.5 switchType Type of switch or port input used. [1] vocabulary mouse
game
serial
usb
firewire
infrared
bluetooth
mouse
1.7.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.7.6 codeExternal A user defined code scheme. This element is mutually exclusive with code. [0..1] URI
 

 
1.7.6.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.8 prediction Control enhancements in which the system predicts and/or completes user input. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.8.1 wordPrediction Use word prediction. [1] boolean
 
false
1.8.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.8.2 wordCompletionPrediction Use word completion prediction. [1] boolean
 
false
1.8.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.8.3 commandPrediction Use command prediction. [1] boolean
 
false
1.8.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.8.4 numberChoicesDisplayed Number of predicted words to display. [1] integer [1 - 20] 5
1.8.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.8.5 personalLexicon Optional external user defined personal lexicon file. [0..1] URI
 

 
1.8.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.9 structuralNavigation Settings related to navigational controls. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.9.1 navigationDepth How the focus moves through navigation entries. [0..1] vocabulary breadthFirst
depthFirst
depthFirst
 
1.9.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.9.2 useTableOfContents Use a table of contents for navigation [0..1] boolean
 
true
 
1.9.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.10 futureTechnology Allows for extensibility. Use to declare settings for future display technologies. [0..*]
 

 

 
1.10.1 application Declare a specific future technology.
Optionally allow for additional settings for that technology.
[0..*]
 
Defined above.
 

2.2.7 The <content> Information Model

The <content> element allows preferences for content attributes. In general, these are paired with meta-data information associated with the content to enable searches for content with appropriate accessibility support.

 
No. Name Description Mult Data Type Value Space Default Value
1 content Preferences regarding the content, specifying any desired transformations or enhancements. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.1 alternativesToVisual Modality preference. How to present visual content in a different modality. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.1.1 audioDescription Audio descriptions of visual elements [0..1] vocabulary standard
expanded
standard
 
1.1.1.1 xml:lang Language to use for long descriptions [0..1] xml:lang ISO Language Code en
1.1.1.2 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.2 altTextLang Language to use for alt text. [0..1] xml:lang ISO Language Code en
1.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.3 longDescriptionLang Language to use for long descriptions [0..1] xml:lang ISO Language Code en
1.1.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.4 colorAvoidance Preferences regarding the use of color in display of information. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.1.4.1 avoidRed Avoid the use of red to highlight information. [0..1] boolean
 
false
1.1.4.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.4.2 avoidRedGreen Avoid the use of red and green to display information. [0..1] boolean
 
false
1.1.4.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.4.3 avoidBlueYellow Avoid the use of blue and yellow to display information. [0..1] boolean
 
false
1.1.4.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.4.4 avoidGreenYellow Avoid the use of green and yellow to display information. [0..1] boolean
 
false
1.1.4.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.4.5 avoidOrange Avoid the use of orange to display information [0..1] boolean
 
false
1.1.4.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.4.6 avoidRedBlack Avoid the use of red and black to display information [0..1] boolean
 
false
1.1.4.6.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.4.7 avoidPurpleGray Avoid the use of purple and gray to display information. [0..1] boolean
 
false
1.1.4.7.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.1.4.8 useMaximumContrastMonochrome Use monochromatic displays at maximum contrast. [0..1] boolean
 
false
1.1.4.8.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2 alternativesToText Modality preference. How to present textual content in a different modality. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.2.1 graphicAlternative Use a graphic alternative if available [0..1] boolean
 
false
1.2.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.2.2 signLanguage Language to use for sign language alternatives [0..*] vocabulary American-ASL
Australian- Auslan
Austrian-ASQ
British-BSL
Danish-DSL
French-LSF
German-DGS
Irish-ISL
Italian-LIS
Japanese-JSL
Malaysian-MSL
Mexican-LSM
Native-American
Netherlands-NGT
Norwegian-NSL Quebec-LSQ
Russian-RSL
Singapore-SLS
Spanish-LSE
Swedish-SWL
other
-



















 
1.2.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3 alternativesToAuditory How to present auditory content in a different modality. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.3.1 captionType What form of text caption is preferred. [0..*]
 

 

 
1.3.1.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.2 verbatim Enable verbatim captions which include descriptions of sound effects.
Mutually exclusive with reducedReadingLevel
[0..1] boolean
 
true
1.3.1.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.3 reducedReadingLevel Reduce the reading level.
Mutually exclusive with verbatim
[0..1] boolean
 
false
1.3.1.3.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.4 reducedSpeed Reduce the speed of captions as expressed in a words -per -minute 'value' rate. [0..1] boolean
 
false
1.3.1.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.4.2 captionRate Reduced rate of captions. [0..1] integer [1 - 300] 120
1.3.1.4.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.1.5 enhancedCaption Enhance the captions to include more information. This includes the use of video layers to provide information about the paralinguistic content of speech, music, and other non-speech sounds. [0..1] boolean
 
false
1.3.1.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.3.2 signLanguage Language to use for sign language alternatives [0..*] vocabulary American-ASL
Australian-Auslan
Austrian-ASQ
British-BSL
Danish-DSL
French-LSF
German-DGS
Irish-ISL
Italian-LIS
Japanese-JSL
Malaysian-MSL
Mexican-LSM
Native-American
Norwegian-NSL
Russian-RSL
Quebec-LSQ
Singapore-SLS
Netherlands-NGT
Spanish-LSE
Swedish-SWL
other
-



















 
1.3.2.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.4 learnerScaffold Analogous to a bookbag, a scaffold is a place to carry common tools. [0..*] vocabulary dictionary
calculator
noteTaking
peerInteraction abacus
thesaurus
spellChecker homophoneChecker mindMappingSoftware outlineTool

 
1.4.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.5 personalStylesheet URI to a style sheet [0..1] URI
 

 
1.5.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.6 extraTime Allows the user to request extra time when viewing content or responding to requests for information, such as during a test. Expressed as a multiplier of the time allowed. [0..1] float [0.0 - 10.0] 1.0
1.6.1 usage Indication of how this preference is to be used. [0..1] vocabulary required preferred optionallyUse notUse preferred
1.7 futureTechnology Allows for extensibility. Use to declare settings for future content options. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.7.1 param Name/value pair for specifying a setting for a specific technology. These values are understood only by their corresponding applications. [0..1]
 

 

 
1.7.1.1 name A technology specific parameter name. [1] string
 

 
1.7.1.2 value A technology specific parameter value. [0..1] string
 

 

2.3 Changes to the <eligibility> Element

The <accommodation> element defined below extends the <eligibility> element previously defined by the IMS LIP. The <accommodation> element allows one to specify accommodations for which a learner is eligible when using a learning object, particularly a test. This can be important as an accommodation made to enhance accessibility can inhibit the learning object from fulfilling its intended purpose or its benefit for the learner. (For example, the use of a spell checker as an accommodation would likely prevent a test of spelling from fulfilling its intended purpose.) Testing accommodations are generally approved in advance of administering the test. This model includes an element called <requestForAccommodations> which stores the student's request, and a separate element called <accommodationDescription> which stores information about the accommodations that the authorizer has agreed to; them may be the same as or different from the request.

The <accommodation> element within the <eligibility> element contains any number of "accommodation packages," that provide information such as descriptions of the learning object; accommodations the learner is permitted to use with the learning object; who authorized the accommodations; the request for accommodation, which generally precedes authorization; and the name of the person or entity that authorized the accommodations.

 
No. Name Description Mult Data Type Value Space Default Value
1 accommodation Authorized accommodations associated with this learner. [0..1]
 

 
-
1.1 accommodationPackage An instance of accommodation for a learning object. [0..*]
 

 

 
1.1.1 learningObjectDescription Description of the learning object. This might consist, for example, of a description of the test, test section, or instructional module: "XYZ Test of Math version 2.0 - Reasoning section," "ABC Database Certification Examination - Level 1." [1] string learning object description
 
1.1.2 requestForAccommodations Request for accommodations. This consists of text encompassing one or both of the following: (1) a reference or pointer to the request and its supporting documentation (e.g., a case number); (2) a description of the request, with or without supporting documentation. [0..1] string request description -
1.1.3 accommodationDescription Text description of the allowed accommodation. [1] string accommodation description. -
1.1.4 authorizedBy Name of the person or entity that has authorized the accommodations. [1] string the name of a person or organization -
1.1.5 authorizedDate Date of authorization in ISO-8601 format. [1] string a date string -
1.1.6 expirationDate Expiration date of this authorization in ISO-8601 format. [1] string a date string -

3. Object Model for Accessibility Preferences

The accessForAll Object model consists of a set of objects that serve as hierarchical containers corresponding to the structure defined by the ACCLIP Information Model. Roughly, these containers are accessForAll (the root), context, display, control, content, and preference-group classes.

The following diagram shows the full set of classes defined for accessibility preferences (accessForAll):

diagram showing the full set of classes accessibility preferences

Three access methods are defined for retrieving specific preference data: aggregated XML text, path-based access, and method-based access. The XML and path methods do not require full accessForAll class implementation since needed information can be extracted from internal XML representations. Interface specifics are determined by an implementation binding.

3.1 Path Specification

Specific accessibility preferences can be identified by a path through the ACCLIP information model hierarchy. The syntax of this path description is determined by an implementation binding. Examples include CMI data model paths and XPath.

3.2 Error Definition

The following errors are defined for accessibility preference access. These errors are abstract entities which are bound to a particular error reporting mechanism such as exception handling, error codes, etc.

 
Name Description
ACCLIP_XML_INVALID The XML string passed does not validate against the ACCLIP schema binding.
ACCLIP_XML_NOT_FOUND The requested XML is not present.
ACCLIP_CONTEXT_NOT_FOUND There is no context of the given ID present.
ACCLIP_PREF_NOT_FOUND The requested preference is not present.
ACCLIP_INVALID_PATH The path specification is syntactically invalid.
ACCLIP_CONTEXT_DUPLICATE A context object of this ID is already present in the contexts list.
ACCLIP_DATA_INVALID Data supplied is invalid or not of the right type for this preference.
ACCLIP_LANG_NOT_FOUND No language attribute was defined.
ACCLIP_LANG_INVALID Invalid language code supplied
ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND The technology preference specified was not found.
ACCLIP_DATA_NOT_FOUND The preference value specified was not found.
ACCLIP_DATA_OUT_OF_BOUND The value specified exceeds the boundaries specified by the ACCLIP Information Model.

3.3 accessForAll Class

The accessForAll class serves as the root container for accessibility preferences. In a full implementation of a Learner Information Profile manager, this class would be instantiated as an object containing all of the preferences created by the learner grouped by context.

3.3.1 Data Structures

 
Data Type Name
array of context objects context
a context object activeContext

The accessForAll class must contain a list of all defined preference contexts. While this list is generally unordered, the first context (context[0]) is designated as the default context to use.

3.3.2 Methods

 
Method Name Input Output
read
 
xmlString
write xmlString
 
getContext contextID context
addContext context
 
removeContext context
 
getViaPath path paramString
setViaPath path, paramString
 
getActiveContext
 
context
setActiveContext context
 
getDefaultContext
 
context
setDefaultContext context
 

3.3.2.1 accessForAll.read

Return a complete accessForAll XML string. This string should be fully formatted to be a standalone XML document and may be used as an interchange file.

ACCLIP_XML_NOT_FOUND

3.3.2.2 accessForAll.write

Write or replace the XML associated with this accessForAll object. If sub-objects are present in the implementation, parsed context sections must be passed to context.write() in order to update lower level preference instantiations.

ACCLIP_XML_INVALID

3.3.2.3 accessForAll.getContext

Takes a context ID string and finds the corresponding context object in the contexts list and returns it.

ACCLIP_CONTEXT_NOT_FOUND

3.3.2.4 accessForAll.addContext

Takes a context object and adds it to the contexts list.

ACCLIP_CONTEXT_DUPLICATE

3.3.2.5 accessForAll.removeContext

Remove the indicated context from the contexts list.

ACCLIP_CONTEXT_NOT_FOUND

3.3.2.6 accessForAll.getViaPath

Find the specification specified by the path and return it.

ACCLIP_PREF_NOT_FOUND

ACCLIP_PATH_INVALID

3.3.2.7 accessForAll.setViaPath

Add or replace the preference specified by the path. If intermediate containers or objects are needed, they are created.

ACCLIP_PATH_INVALID

ACCLIP_DATA_INVALID

3.3.2.8 accessForAll.getActiveContext

Return the active context.

ACCLIP_CONTEXT_NOT_FOUND

3.3.2.9 accessForAll.setActiveContext

Set the supplied context to be the active one.

3.3.2.10 accessForAll.getDefaultContext

Return the default context.

ACCLIP_CONTEXT_NOT_FOUND

3.3.2.11 accessForAll.setDefaultContext

Set the supplied context to be the default one.

3.4 Context Class

The context class allows a set of preferences to be identified in a unique manner. A context allows learners to have preferences which depend on external factors such as time of day, current location, learning or work style, etc.

3.4.1 Data Structures

 
Data Type Name
string lang
string id
uriString externalURI
a display object display
a control object control
a content object content

The context class must contain an identifier which is locally unique (within this learner's preferences). A language may be specified. If so, this is the user's default and preferred language to use. A context may define externally. If so, its location is contained in externalURI. Each context serves as a container for display, control, and content preference groups. These objects may be created when the context is created.

3.4.2 Methods

 
Method Name Input Output
read
 
xmlString
write xmlString
 
getLang
 
string
setLang string
 
getDisplay
 
display
getControl
 
control
getContent
 
content
getViaPath path paramString
setViaPath path, paramString
 

3.4.2.1 context.read

Return a partial XML string.

ACCLIP_XML_NOT_FOUND

3.4.2.2 context.write

Write or replace the XML associated with this accessForAll object. If sub-objects are present in the implementation, parsed context sections must be passed to context.write() in order to update lower level preference instantiations.

ACCLIP_XML_INVALID

3.4.2.3 context.getLang

Return the language attribute associated with this context.

ACCLIP_LANG_NOT_FOUND

3.4.2.4 context.setLang

Set a language attribute to be associated with this context.

ACCLIP_LANG_INVALID

3.4.2.5 context.getDisplay

Return the display group preference object.

3.4.2.6 context.getControl

Return the control group preference object.

3.4.2.7 context.getContent

Return the content group preference object.

3.4.2.8 context.getViaPath

Find the specification specified by the path and return it.

ACCLIP_PREF_NOT_FOUND

ACCLIP_PATH_INVALID

3.4.2.9 context.setViaPath

Add or replace the preference specified by the path. If intermediate containers or objects are needed, they are created.

ACCLIP_PATH_INVALID

ACCLIP_DATA_INVALID

3.5 Display Class

The display class provides a way to group preferences concerning display aspects together. Some or all sub-groups may be present to include preferences for particular technology areas.

3.5.1 Data Structures

 
Data Type Name
a screenReader object screenReader
a screenEnhance object screenEnhance
a textReadingHighlight object textReadingHighlight
a braille object braille
a tactile object tactile
a visualAlert object visualAlert
a structuralPresentation object structuralPresentation

Seven technology groups are represented. Each of these abstract objects are further defined by a binding.

3.5.2 Methods

 
Method Name Input Output
read
 
xmlString
write xmlString
 
getScreenReader
 
screenReader
setScreenReader screenReader
 
getScreenEnhance
 
screenEnhance
setScreenEnhance screenEnhance
 
getTextReadingHighlight
 
textReadingHighlight
setTextReadingHighlight textReadingHighlight
 
getBraille
 
braille
setBraille braille
 
getTactile
 
tactile
setTactile tactile
 
getVisualAlert
 
visualAlert
setVisualAlert visualAlert
 
getStructuralPresentation
 
structuralPresentation
setStructuralPresentation structuralPresentation
 
getViaPath path paramString
setViaPath path, paramString
 

3.5.2.1 display.read

Return a complete a partial XML string.

ACCLIP_XML_NOT_FOUND

3.5.2.2 display.write

Write or replace the XML associated with this accessForAll object. If sub-objects are present in the implementation, parsed display sections must be passed to display.write() in order to update lower level preference instantiations.

ACCLIP_XML_INVALID

3.5.2.3 display.getScreenReader

Return the screenReader object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.5.2.4 display.setScreenReader

Add or replace the screenReader object.

3.5.2.5 display.getScreenEnhance

Return the screenEnhance object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.5.2.6 display.setScreenEnhance

Add or replace the screenEnhance object.

3.5.2.7 display.getTextReadingHighlight

Return the textReadingHighlight object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.5.2.8 display.setTextReadingHighlight

Add or replace the textReadingHighlight object.

3.5.2.9 display.getBraille

Return the braille object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.5.2.10 display.setBraille

Add or replace the braille object.

3.5.2.11 display.getTactile

Return the tactile object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.5.2.12 display.setTactile

Add or replace the tactile object.

3.5.2.13 display.getVisualAlert

Return the visualAlert object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.5.2.14 display.setVisualAlert

Add or replace the visualAlert object.

3.5.2.15 display.getStructuralPresentation

Return the structuralPresentation object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.5.2.16 display.setStructuralPresentation

Add or replace the structuralPresentation object.

3.5.2.17 display.string getViaPath

Find the specification specified by the path and return it.

ACCLIP_PREF_NOT_FOUND

ACCLIP_PATH_INVALID

3.5.2.18 display.setViaPath

Add or replace the preference specified by the path. If intermediate containers or objects are needed, they are created.

ACCLIP_PATH_INVALID

ACCLIP_DATA_INVALID

3.6 Control Class

The control class provides a way to group preferences concerning control aspects together. Some or all sub-groups may be present to include preferences for particular technology areas.

3.6.1 Data Structures

 
Data Type Name
a keyboardEnhanced object keyboardEnhanced
an onscreenKeyboard object onscreenKeyboard
an alternativeKeyboard object alternativeKeyboard
a mouseEmulation object mouseEmulation
an alternativePointing object alternativePointing
a voiceRecognition object voiceRecognition
a structuralNavigation object structuralNavigation
a codedInput object codedInput

Eight technology groups are represented. Each of these abstract objects are further defined by a binding.

3.6.2 Methods

 
Method Name Input Output
read
 
xmlString
write xmlString
 
getKeyboardEnhanced
 
keyboardEnhanced
setKeyboardEnhanced keyboardEnhanced
 
getOnscreenKeyboard
 
onscreenKeyboard
setOnscreenKeyboard onscreenKeyboard
 
getAlternativeKeyboard
 
alternativeKeyboard
setAlternativeKeyboard alternativeKeyboard
 
getMouseEmulation
 
mouseEmulation
setMouseEmulation mouseEmulation
 
getAlternativePointing
 
alternativePointing
setAlternativePointing alternativePointing
 
getVoiceRecognition
 
voiceRecognition
setVoiceRecognition voiceRecognition
 
getStructuralNavigation
 
structuralNavigation
setStructuralNavigation structuralNavigation
 
getCodedInput
 
codedInput
setCodedInput codedInput
 
getViaPath path paramString
setViaPath path, paramString
 

3.6.2.1 control.read

Return a complete a partial XML string.

ACCLIP_XML_NOT_FOUND

3.6.2.2 control.write

Write or replace the XML associated with this accessForAll object. If sub-objects are present in the implementation, parsed control sections must be passed to control.write() in order to update lower level preference instantiations.

3.6.2.3 control.getKeyboardEnhanced

Return the keyboardEnhanced object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.6.2.4 control.setKeyboardEnhanced

Add or replace the keyboardEnhanced object.

3.6.2.5 control.getOnscreenKeyboard

Return the onscreenKeybard object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.6.2.6 control.setOnscreenKeyboard

Add or replace the onscreenKeyboard object.

3.6.2.7 control.getAlternativeKeyboard

Return the alternativeKeyboard object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.6.2.8 control.setAlternativeKeyboard

Add or replace the alternativeKeyboard object.

3.6.2.9 control.getMouseEmulation

Return the mouseEmulation object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.6.2.10 control.setMouseEmulation

Add or replace the mouseEmulation object.

3.6.2.11 control.getAlternativePointing

Return the alternativePointing object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.6.2.12 control.setAlternativePointing

Add or replace the alternativePointing object.

3.6.2.13 control.getVoiceRecognition

Return the voiceRecognition object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.6.2.14 control.setVoiceRecognition

Add or replace the voiceRecognition object.

3.6.2.15 control.getStructuralNavigation

Return the structuralNavigation object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.6.2.16 control.setStructuralNavigation

Add or replace the structuralNavigation object.

3.6.2.17 control.getCodedInput

Return the codedInput object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.6.2.18 control.setCodedInput

Add or replace the codedInput object.

3.6.2.19 control.string getViaPath

Find the specification specified by the path and return it.

ACCLIP_PREF_NOT_FOUND

ACCLIP_PATH_INVALID

3.6.2.20 control.setViaPath

Add or replace the preference specified by the path. If intermediate containers or objects are needed, they are created.

ACCLIP_PATH_INVALID

ACCLIP_DATA_INVALID

3.7 Content Class

The content class provides a way to group preferences concerning content aspects together. Some or all sub-groups may be present to include preferences for particular technology areas.

3.7.1 Data Structures

 
Data Type Name
an alternativesToVisual object alternativesToVisual
an alternativesToText object alternativesToText
a visualText object vistualText
an alternativesToAuditory object alternativesToAuditory
an array of scaffoldType learnerScaffolding
a uriString personalStylesheet
a float extraTime

Four technology groups are represented plus three preferences. Each of these abstract objects are further defined by a binding.

3.7.2 Methods

 
Method Name Input Output
read
 
xmlString
write xmlString
 
getAlternativesToVisual
 
alternativesToVisual
setAlternativesToVisual alternativesToVisual
 
getAlternativesToText
 
alternativesToText
setAlternativesToText alternativesToText
 
getVisualText
 
vistualText
setVisualText vistualText
 
getAlternativesToAuditory
 
alternativesToAuditory
setAlternativesToAuditory alternativesToAuditory
 
getLearningScaffolding
 
array of scaffoldType
setLearnerScaffolding array of scaffoldType
 
addLearnerScaffolding scaffoldType
 
getPersonalStylesheet
 
uriString
setPersonalStylesheet uriString
 
getExtraTime
 
float
setExtraTime float
 
getViaPath path paramString
setViaPath path, paramString
 

3.7.2.1 content.read

Return a complete a partial XML string.

ACCLIP_XML_NOT_FOUND

3.7.2.2 content.write

Write or replace the XML associated with this accessForAll object. If sub-objects are present in the implementation, parsed control sections must be passed to control.write() in order to update lower level preference instantiations.

3.7.2.3 content.getAlternativesToVisual

Return the alternativesToVisual object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.7.2.4 content.setAlternativesToVisual

Add or replace the alternativesToVisual object.

3.7.2.5 content.getAlternativesToText

Return the alternativesToText object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.7.2.6 content.setAlternativesToText

Add or replace the alternativesToText object.

3.7.2.7 content.getVisualText

Return the visualText object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.7.2.8 content.setVisualText

Add or replace the visualText object.

3.7.2.9 content.getAlternativesToAuditory

Return the alternativesToAuditory object.

ACCLIP_OBJECT_NOT_FOUND

3.7.2.10 content.setAlternativesToAuditory

Add or replace the alternativesToAuditory object.

3.7.2.11 content.getLearningScaffolding

Return an array of scaffolding items (scaffoldType).

ACCLIP_DATA_NOT_FOUND

3.7.2.12 content.setLearnerScaffolding

Set an array of scaffolding items (scaffoldType)

ACCLIP_INVALID_DATA

3.7.2.13 content.addLearnerScaffolding

Add the supplied scaffolding type to the array scaffolding items.

ACCLIP_INVALID_DATA

3.7.2.14 content.getPersonalStylesheet

Return a URI (uriString) to a personal style sheet.

ACCLIP_DATA_NOT_FOUND

3.7.2.15 content.setPersonalStylesheet

Set or add a personal style sheet URI.

ACCLIP_DATA_INVALID

3.7.2.16 content.getExtraTime

Return the extraTime value (float).

ACCLIP_DATA_NOT_FOUND

3.7.2.17 content.setExtraTime

Set the extraTime value (float).

ACCLIP_DATA_INVALID

ACCLIP_DATA_OUT_OF_BOUNDS

3.7.2.18 control.string getViaPath

Find the specification specified by the path and return it.

ACCLIP_PREF_NOT_FOUND

ACCLIP_PATH_INVALID

3.7.2.19 control.setViaPath

Add or replace the preference specified by the path. If intermediate containers or objects are needed, they are created.

ACCLIP_PATH_INVALID

ACCLIP_DATA_INVALID

4. Extensibility

4.1 Extensibility Statement

The <accessForAll> element provides a number of extension mechanisms that permit the addition of new assistive technology methods and other accessibility preferences. In particular, most elements have <application> and <param> elements that allow additional parameters to be defined for a particular accessibility application. In addition, the binding provides for arbitrary extensions. See the Binding Guide document for more details. In general, these extension methods are provided as placeholders for future revisions of this specification. Both the <display> and <control> elements provide for sub-elements named <futureTechnology> which are intended to allow new technology approaches to be included.

5. Conformance

A full conformance specification is provided in a separate document called, "IMS Accessibility for LIP Conformance Specification."

Appendix A - Glossary

The following terms are used through out the ACCLIP document set to describe parts of the information model.

The following terms are used throughout the Accessibility for LIP document set to describe parts of the information model.

Alpha Layout -
The layout of the keys for an onscreen keyboard. Examples include standard (e.g., QWERTY), sequential, and frequency weighted (i.e. frequently used keys are grouped at the center for pointing device users or at the place where scanning begins for switch users).

Alternative Keyboard -
Assistive technology type in which a separate external device functions like a standard keyboard. Examples include miniature keyboards and keyboards with very large keys.

Alternative Pointing Device -
Assistive technology type in which the standard mouse is replaced by another device. Examples include trackball, graphic tablet, head pointer, and joystick.

Alternative Text -
Text which is provided as an alternative to the primary non-text content. Examples include text descriptions of images.

Alternatives to Audio -
Non-auditory content that is intended to convey the same meaning as auditory content. Examples include captions and sign language.

Alternatives to Visual -
Visual content provided to a user in an equivalent alternative format. Examples include audio descriptions, alternative text, and long descriptions.

Audio Description -
Audio content that describes visual content in a video. Used when auditory information is not otherwise available to convey visible action -- description 'by' audio. An example is the speech "Smith walks to the door, opens it and peers out." Standard audio descriptions are placed in the "silent" parts of the sound track where there is no dialogue; expanded audio description may pause the video presentation while playing audio. This is a type of alternative content. Also referred to as 'Video Description.'

Braille Display -
Assistive technology type in which text and other information are displayed as Braille using a dynamic array of pins.

Braille Cell -
A Braille cell is composed of six dots or pins (eight with computer Braille) that make up an individual character.

Direct Selection -
Selection method for attaining key presses for an onscreen keyboard in which the virtual key is directly selected by the user. Types of selection include point and click and point and dwell.

Indirect Selection -
Selection method for attaining key presses for an onscreen keyboard or other input device in which the rows or keys are scanned automatically and the user selects his/her desired key by signaling to the system when the desired key is highlighted. Example would include activating a switch to choose the row and column where the desired key is located.

Keyboard Enhancement -
Assistive technology type in which the functionality of the keyboard is modified in order to aid a user with his/her usage of the keyboard. Examples include sticky keys, repeat keys, and slow keys.

Learner Scaffold -
A collection of support tools for learners. Examples include calculator, dictionary, and peer interaction.

Mouse Emulation -
Assistive technology type in which a mouse cursor is manipulated using something other than a mouse/trackball. Examples include using the numeric keypad '8, 6, 2, 4' keys to direct the mouse movements with the number '5' acting as a mouse click.

Onscreen Keyboard -
Assistive technology type in which a virtual keyboard is displayed to the user on his/her screen to emulate the functionality of a standard keyboard and/or mouse

Repeat Keys -
Keyboard enhancement type in which the desired repeat rate when pressing and holding a key is defined, including the option of disabling auto-repeat.

Screen Enhancement -
Assistive technology type in which the display is made easier to see, by, for example, enlarging the text and/or increasing the contrast. Examples include screen magnifiers and operating system display property enhancements.

Screen Reader -
Assistive technology type in which text that appears on screen is rendered as speech or Braille.

Slow Keys -
Keyboard enhancement type which allows control over the length of time a key must be pressed before the key press is detected.

Status Cell -
Braille cell(s) which provides additional information about text attributes in the reading cells of the Braille display.

Sticky Keys -
Keyboard enhancement type in which modifier keys, such as control, shift, and alt, "stick", i.e., are virtually held down while a second key is depressed manually.

Structural Navigation -
Refers to the way in which the user navigates through the structure of the content. Possible variations include showing or hiding a table of contents, and the depth of table of contents.

Structural Presentation -
Refers to the way in which the structure of the content is presented. Possible variations include the order of presentation, the content density, and whether or not content provided to a user is structured in alternative presentations. Examples include content density, sorting, image/text intensive content views, and options for showing links, transcripts, and notes.

Tactile Displays -
Assistive technology type in which touch or haptics ("force feedback") is used as the means of rendering information. Examples include a haptic mouse and a vibrating display that allows users to feel what is displayed visually on a computer screen.

Text Reading with Highlight -
Assistive technology type in which the text is highlighted as it is rendered as speech in order to help guide or focus a user's attention.

Video Description -
See "Audio Description."

Visual Alerts -
Visually displayed information that is intended to convey the essential meaning of computer alert sounds. Examples include a flashing a menu bar and displaying captions that describe the meaning of audio alerts.

Voice Recognition -
This is a kind of assistive technology in which a user controls his/her computer using spoken commands and dictation.

About This Document

 
Title IMS Learner Information Package Accessibility for LIP Information Model
Editor Mark Norton
Team Co-Lead Jutta Treviranus
Version 1.0
Version Date 18 June 2003
Status Final Specification
Summary This document describes the Learner Information Package - Accessibility Preferences
Revision Information 23 July 2003
Purpose Defines the IMS Learner Information Package - Accessibility Preferences.
Document Location http://www.imsglobal.org/accessibility/acclipv1p0/imsacclip_infov1p0.html

List of Contributors

The following individuals contributed to the development of this document:

 
Name Organization
Cathleen Barstow The CBP/WGBH National Center for Accessible Media
Anastasia Cheetham Unversity of Toronto, ATRC, Industry Canada
Martyn Cooper Open University, UK
Eric Hansen Educational Testing Services
Andy Heath UK eUniversities Worldwide, Sheffield Hallam University
Phill Jenkins IBM
Hazel Kennedy Open University, UK
Liddy Nevile Educational Technology Standards of Australia
Mark Norton IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc.
Madeleine Rothberg The CBP/WGBH National Center for Accessible Media
Joseph Scheuhammer University of Toronto, ATRC, Industry Canada
Brendon Towle Thomson NETg
Jutta Treviranus Unversity of Toronto, ATRC, Industry Canada
David Weinkauf University of Toronto, ATRC, Industry Canada

Revision History

 
Version No. Release Date Comments
Public Draft v1.0 04 April 2003 The Public Draft release of the Accessibility for LIP Specification.
Final v1.0 18 June 2003 Made numerous editorial and technical changes to the document, including:
a) Split the information model data into separate tables.
b) Removed duplicate data types.
c) Added LIP Meta-data.
d) Added new elements.

 
23 July 2003 Made a few minor editorial and formatting changes, and:
a) Changed <onscreenKeyboard> scanning values to 'float' as opposed to 'integer'.

Index

A
Abstract Framework 1, 2, 3
Audio 1
audio 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

B
Braille 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

E
Elements
     accessForAll 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
     accommodation 1, 2, 3, 4
     application 1, 2
     content 1
     context 1
     control 1, 2, 3
     display 1, 2, 3
     eligibility 1, 2, 3, 4
     futureTechnology 1
Extensibility 1
Extension 1, 2, 3
 

I
IMS Specifications
     Accessibility for LIP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17
     Content Packaging 1, 2
     Learner Information Package 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
     Question and Test Interoperability 1
 

K
Keyboard 1
keyboard 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

M
meta-data 1, 2, 3, 4

P
preference manager 1
preferences 1, 2, 3, 4
profile manager 1, 2, 3

R
repository 1

S
SCORM 1
Sequencing 1, 2
style sheet 1, 2, 3, 4

U
URI 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

V
video 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
visual 1, 2, 3, 4

W
W3C 1, 2

X
XML 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
     XSD 1, 2
 

 

 

 

IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. ("IMS") is publishing the information contained in this IMS Learner Information Package Accessibility for LIP Information Model ("Specification") for purposes of scientific, experimental, and scholarly collaboration only.

IMS makes no warranty or representation regarding the accuracy or completeness of the Specification.
This material is provided on an "As Is" and "As Available" basis.

The Specification is at all times subject to change and revision without notice.

It is your sole responsibility to evaluate the usefulness, accuracy, and completeness of the Specification as it relates to you.

IMS would appreciate receiving your comments and suggestions.

Please contact IMS through our website at http://www.imsglobal.org

Please refer to Document Name:
IMS Learner Information Package Accessibility for LIP Information Model Revision: 18 June 2003