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IMS AccessForAll Meta-data
XML Binding

Version 1.0 Final Specification

Copyright © 2004 IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The IMS Logo is a trademark of IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc.
Document Name: IMS AccessForAll Meta-data XML Binding
Revision: 12 July 2004


 
Date Issued: 12 July 2004

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Table of Contents


1. Introduction
1.1 Structure of this Document
1.2 Nomenclature
1.3 References

2. XML Binding
2.1 Overview
2.2 Primary
2.3 Equivalent
2.4 Content
2.5 captionType
2.6 alternativesToVisual
2.7 Attributes of Complex Types

3. Extensibility and Related Issues
3.1 Extension of the ACCMD model
3.2 Extension Statements

4. ACCMD Conformance
4.1 Conformance Specification for Portability and Interoperability
4.2 Content Instances
4.3 Conformance Specification for Behaviors within Applications Supporting Both AccessForAll Profile

About This Document
List of Contributors

Revision History

Index


1. Introduction

This document is the XML Binding of the UML information model described in the AccessForAll Information Model document [ACCMD, 04a]. For more background and context information see the Accessibility Meta-Data Overview document [ACCMD, 04d].

1.1 Structure of this Document

The structure of this document is:

 
2. XML Binding A description of the XML schema created to reflect the Information Model;
3. Extensibility and Related Issues Information about extending the ACCMD model;
4. ACCMD Conformance A description of how to achieve different levels of conformance.

1.2 Nomenclature

 
ACCLIP IMS Learner Information Package Accessibility for LIP
ACCMD IMS AccessForAll Meta-data
CP IMS Content Packaging Specification
DC Dublin Core
DRI IMS Digital Repositories Interoperability Specification
ICP IMS International Conformance Program
IEEE Institute of Electronic & Electrical Engineering
LMS Learning Management System
LO Learning Object
LOM Learning Object Metadata (usually used in "IEEE LOM")
LTSC Learning Technology Standards Committee
UML Unified Modeling Language
VDEX IMS Vocabulary Definition Exchange Specification
W3C World Wide Web Consortium
XML Extensible Mark-up Language

1.3 References

 
[ACCMD, 04a] IMS AccessForAll Meta-data Information Model v1.0, A.Jackl, IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc., July 2004.
[ACCMD, 04c] IMS AccessForAll Meta-data Best Practice and Implementation Guide v1.0, A.Jackl, IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc., July 2004.
[ACCMD, 04d] IMS AccessForAll Meta-data Overview v1.0, A.Jackl, IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc., July 2004.
[ACCGuide, 02] IMS Guidelines for Developing Accessible Learning Applications v1.0, IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc., June 2002.
[ACCLIP, 03] IMS Learner Information Package Accessibility for LIP v1.0, M.Norton, J.Treviranus, IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc., June 2003.
[DRI, 03] IMS Digital Repositories Interoperability v1.0, K.Riley, IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc., January 2003.
[IEEE LOM] IEEE 14.84.12.1 - 2002 Standard for Learning Object Metadata, http://ltsc.ieee.org
[RFC 1766] Tags for the Identification of Languages, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1766.txt
[RFC 2119] IETF RFC 2119 - Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels
[RFC 2396] IETF RFC 2396 Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax
[RFC3066] RFC 3066, Tags for the Identification of Languages, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3066.txt
[UDC] Universal Decimal Classification Scheme, UDC Consortium, http://www.udcc.org/
[ISO 11404] ISO 11404, Language-independent Datatypes, http://www.iso.ch/cate/d19346.html

2. XML Binding

This binding document describes the binding of the AccessForAll Meta-data (ACCMD) Information Model to XML version 1.0 and is normative for any XML instance that claims to use this binding, whether by reference to the specification or by declaration of the namespace reserved by the specification. In cases of error or omission, the Information Model takes precedence. The ACCMD XML Binding includes an XSD control document using W3C Schema Language that should be used in implementations.

This section also contains several tables. The tables map the elements by number and name as listed in the ACCMD Information Model specification to the XML Schema entity used to represent it in the XML Schema binding. The Schema entity's name, kind of structure, and type are provided. Note that all "usage" attributes are of type "usageType"; this is not explicitly noted in the table.

The ACCMD Information Model identifies data elements in a dot-delimited enumeration and by name. The dot-delimited enumeration typifies the relationship of elements to each other, where elements with a numeral following a 'dot' are subordinate to elements that share the same numeric value to the left of a dot. The enumeration typically does not imply a strict sequence or order of occurrence. It merely implies a group relationship.

The tables also include references to additional XML Schema structures used to properly express the relationships or controlled lists of <accessibility> element values. These additional XML Schema structures are inserted into the tables in proximity to the <accessibility> elements they describe.

XSD elements of type complexType and simpleType may be nested. All the tables do not show this nesting. Separate tables in this section provide the further details for nested elements defined as complexType or simpleType. In those tables, the element number from the Accessibility model and the XML Schema element name are used to associate a nested Schema structuring entity with the appropriate element from the Accessibility model.

2.1 Overview

The following sections break down the XML binding in a manner designed to be as understandable and readable as possible. The core classes are primary, equivalent, and the separate compliance class.

<accessibility> element composition
Figure 2.1 <accessibility> element composition.
Table 2.1 - <accessibility> elements mapped to XML Schema (XSD) structures.

 
No. IM Element Name XSD Entity Name XSD Structure XSD Type
1 accessibility accessibility Element accessibilityType
1.1 resourceDescription resourceDescription Element resourceDescriptionType
1.1.1 primary primary Element primaryType
1.1.2 equivalent equivalent Element equivelentType

2.2 Primary

<primary> element composition
Figure 2.2 <primary> element composition.
Table 2.2 - <primary> elements mapped to XML Schema (XSD) structures.

 
No. IM Element Name XSD Entity Name XSD Structure XSD Type
1.1.1 primary primary Element primaryType
1.1.1.1 display none N/a N/a
1.1.1.1.1 displayTransformability adaptability Element adaptabilityType

 

 
test Attribute testType
1.1.1.2 control none N/a N/a
1.1.1.2.1 controlFlexibility adaptability Element adaptabilityType

 

 
test Attribute testType
1.1.1.3 modalities none N/a N/a
1.1.1.3.1 hasVisual hasVisual Attribute boolean
1.1.1.3.2 hasAuditory hasAuditory Attribute boolean
1.1.1.3.3 hasText hasText Attribute boolean
1.1.1.3.4 hasTactile hasTactile Attribute boolean
1.1.1.4 equivalentResource equivalentResource Element anyURI

2.3 Equivalent

<equivalent> element composition
Figure 2.3 <equivalent> element composition.
Table 2.3 - <equivalent> elements mapped to XML Schema (XSD) structures.

 
No. IM Element Name XSD Entity Name XSD Structure XSD Type
1.1.2 equivalent equivalent Element equivalentType
1.1.2.1 equivalentFor N/a container N/a
1.1.2.1.1 equivalentForPrimary primaryResource Element anyURI
1.1.2.1.2 equivalentForFile primaryFile Element anyURI
1.1.2.1.3 isSupplementary supplementary Attribute boolean
1.1.2.2 content content Element contentType

2.4 Content

Many of the sub-sections of the content element are namespaced in from the Access for All Learner Information Package (ACCLIP) specification version 1.0 [ACCLIP, 03].

captionType and acclip:alternativesToVisual are broken out separately as they are sufficiently complex and/or deep to warrant their own section.

<content> element composition
Figure 2.4 <content> element composition.
Table 2.4 - <content> IM elements mapped to XML Schema (XSD) structures.

 
No. IM Element Name XSD Entity Name XSD Structure XSD Type
1.1.2.2 content content Element contentType
1.1.2.1.3 isSupplementary supplementary Attribute boolean
1.1.2.2.1 alternativesToVisual acclip:alternativesToVisual Element alternativesToVisualElementType
1.1.2.2.2 alternativesToText acclip:alternativesToText Element alternativesToTextElementType
1.1.2.2.2.1 graphicAlternative graphicAlternative Element graphicAlternativeElementType
1.1.2.2.2.2 signLanguage signLanguage Element signLanguageElementType
1.1.2.2.3 alternativesToAuditory acclip: alternativesToAuditory Element alternativesToAuditoryElementType
1.1.2.2.3.1 captionType captionType Element captionTypeElementType
1.1.2.2.3.2 signLanguage signLanguage Element signLanguageElementType
1.1.2.2.4 learnerScaffold acclip:learnerScaffold Element learnerScaffoldElementType

 

 
usage Attribute usageType

 

 
value Attribute scaffoldingType

 

 
imslip:contentype Element contenttypeType

2.5 captionType

This element is namespaced into the specification from the IMS ACCLIP version 1.0 specification. For more details see that specification [ACCLIP, 03]. In this section we are only detailing where the ACCMD Information Model intersects with the XML Binding.

<captionType> element composition
Figure 2.5 <captionType> element composition.
Table 2.5 - <captionType> IM elements mapped to XML Schema (XSD) structures.

 
No. IM Element Name XSD Entity Name XSD Structure XSD Type
1.1.2.2.3.1 captionType captionType Element captionTypeElementType
1.1.2.2.3.1.1 xml:lang xml:lang Attribute language
1.1.2.2.3.1.2 verbatim verbatim Element verbatimElementType
1.1.2.2.3.1.3 reducedReadingLevel reducedReadingLevel Element reducedReadingLevelElementType
1.1.2.2.3.1.4 reducedSpeed reducedSpeed Element ReducedSpeedElement Type
1.1.2.2.3.1.4.1 captionRate captionRate Element captionRateElementType
1.1.2.2.3.1.5 enhancedCaption enhancedCaption Element enhancedCaptionElementType

2.6 alternativesToVisual

This element is namespaced into the specification from the IMS ACCLIP version 1.0 specification. For more details see that specification [ACCLIP, 03]. In this section we are only detailing where the ACCMD Information Model intersects with the XML Binding.

<alternativesToVisual> element composition
Figure 2.6 <alternativesToVisual> element composition.
Table 2.6 - <alternativesToVisual> IM elements mapped to XML Schema (XSD) structures.

 
No. IM Element Name XSD Entity Name XSD Structure XSD Type
1.1.2.2.1 alternativesToVisual alternativesToVisual Element alternativesToVisualElementType
1.1.2.2.1.1 audioDescription audioDescription Element audioDescriptionElementType
1.1.2.2.1.1.1 xml:lang xml:lang Attribute language
1.1.2.2.1.2 altTextLang altTextLang Element altTextLangElementType
1.1.2.2.1.3 longDescriptionLang longDescriptionLang Element longDescriptionLangElementType
1.1.2.2.1.4 colorAvoidance colorAvoidance Element colorAvoidanceElementType
1.1.2.2.1.4.1 avoidRed avoidRed Element avoidColorElementType
1.1.2.2.1.4.2 avoidRedGreen avoidRedGreen Element avoidColorElementType
1.1.2.2.1.4.3 avoidBlueYellow avoidBlueYellow Element avoidColorElementType
1.1.2.2.1.4.4 avoidGreenYellow avoidGreenYellow Element avoidColorElementType
1.1.2.2.1.4.5 avoidOrange avoidOrange Element avoidColorElementType
1.1.2.2.1.4.6 avoidRedBlack avoidRedBlack Element avoidColorElementType
1.1.2.2.1.4.7 avoidPurpleGray avoidPurpleGray Element avoidColorElementType
1.1.2.2.1.4.8 useMaximumContrastMonochrome useMaximumContrastMonochrome Element useMaximumContrastMonochromeElementType

2.7 Attributes of Complex Types

Table 2.7 - Attributes of Complex Types

 
XSD Element Name XSD Attribute XSD Data Type Use Value
audioDescription type audioDescriptionValueElementType default standard
audioDescrption xml:lang language default en
altTextLangType xml:lang language optional
 
avoidColorElementType value boolean default false
captionRateElementType value captionRateElementType default 120
captionTypeType xml:lang language default en
enhancedCaptionElementType value boolean default false
graphicAlternativeElementType value boolean default false
learnerScaffoldElementType value scaffoldingElementType optional
 
longDescriptionLangElementType xml:lang language optional
 
reducedReadingLevelElementType value boolean default false
reducedSpeedElementType value boolean default false
signLanguageElementType value signLanguageValueElementType required
 
useMaximumContrastMonochromeElementType value boolean default false
verbatimElementType value boolean default true

3. Extensibility and Related Issues

This section is not normative.

Extensibility and related issues deal with the concept of modularity, reusability etc.

3.1 Extension of the ACCMD model

If ACCMD does not provide the expressiveness required, then the recommended approach is to use ACC with extensions, preferably agreed in a community of practice. This approach:

  • Avoids proliferation of exchange models with a great deal of similarity at a semantic level;
  • May allow a user of a system that is ignorant of the extensions to gain some benefit from a degraded but non-zero performance.

The manner of extension is binding-dependent. The ACCMD XML Binding ex plains how XML 1.0 documents using W3C XML Schema Data Language can be extended such that graceful degradation of performance is enabled.

3.2 Extension Statements

Vendors making use of extensions to ACCMD should clearly identify the function and form of the extensions in order for users of data and software to understand the likely degradation of behavior in systems not supporting the extensions.

4. ACCMD Conformance

A Conformance document for Data Portability and Interoperability. This conformance specification addresses accessibility meta-data requirements, such as mandatory and optional items. Conformance for continuity of meta-data during import/export cycles will be augmented if conformance associated with IEEE LOM and DC does not meet requirements. It is anticipated that conformance for interoperability (i.e., runtime exchange of meta-data instances) will reference the IMS DRI specification [DRI, 03], as it appears that the characteristics of the data in this scope are not unique with respect to exchange. See Figure 4.1.

Conformance with data portability and interoperability
Figure 4.1 Conformance with data portability and interoperability.

An Intra-Application Conformance document for Behaviors within Applications supporting both ACCLIP and Learning Object accessibility meta-data. This document will describe the behavior of an application that provides a user interface to the user based on the presence of both ACCLIP and accessibility meta-data. For example, if a user is hearing-impaired and caption text is available for a video resource, then the application must display the caption text. See Figure 4.2.

Conformance with application support for ACCMD
Figure 4.2 Conformance with application support for ACCMD.

Important note: The scope of this deliverable has been evaluated and the scope is limited to approximately ten specific behaviors based on specific combinations of ACCLIP and learning object meta-data combinations. The effort will be time-limited with subsequent versions, as needed, driven by subsequent charters based on requirements from implementation.

Note: "Applicable" is defined as relevant within the functional design of an application or content.

4.1 Conformance Specification for Portability and Interoperability

A 'tool' is defined as an application designed to work with one or more instances of content that support this specification. A conforming tool will:

  • Conform to the applicable semantics of the information models (IEEE LOM or DC);
  • Maintain all mandatory elements in the profile during import/export cycles;
  • Support all of the mandatory elements in the profile that are applicable to the subset of content instances for which the tool is designed to manipulate;
  • Support all applicable behaviors as described in the IMS DRI specification;
  • Support one or more mappings as described from IEEE and DC;
  • Support one or more non-mandatory elements as described in the Information Model, profile, and Binding(s).

4.2 Content Instances

A content instance is defined as an object (such as an instructional module), or asset (such as an MPEG file), that supports this specification. A conforming content instance will:

  • Conform to the applicable semantics of the information model in the IEEE LOM or DC;
  • Support the applicable mandatory elements in the profile;
  • Support all applicable behaviors as described in the IMS DRI specification;
  • Support one or more bindings;
  • Support one or more non-mandatory elements as described in the Information Model, profile, and Binding(s).

4.3 Conformance Specification for Behaviors within Applications Supporting Both AccessForAll Profile

A conforming application or content will:

  • Conform to accessibility meta-data conformance requirements;
  • Conform to ACCLIP;
  • Support all applicable behaviors described in the "Intra-Application Conformance".

About This Document

 
Title IMS AccessForAll Meta-data XML Binding
Editor Alex Jackl (IMS)
Co-Leads Jutta Treviranus (Industry Canada), Anthony Roberts (Industry Canada)
Version 1.0
Version Date 12 July 2004
Status Final Specification
Summary This document describes the AccessForAll Meta-data XML Binding.
Revision Information 12 July 2004
Purpose This document has been approved by the IMS Technical Board and is made available for adoption.
Document Location http://www.imsglobal.org/accessibility/accmdv1p0/imsaccmd_bindv1p0.html

 
To register comments or questions about this specification please visit: http://www.imsglobal.org/developers/ims/imsforum/categories.cfm?catid=16

List of Contributors

The following individuals contributed to the development of this document:

 
Name Organization
Anastasia Cheetham ATRC - U. Toronto, Industry Canada
Martyn Cooper Open University, UK
Andy Heath Sheffield Hallam University, CEN-ISSS Learning Technologies Workshop APLR project
Alex Jackl IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc.
Liddy Nevile DEST, La Trobe University Australia
Anthony Roberts Industry Canada
Madeleine Rothberg WGBH National Center for Accessible Media, USA
Jutta Treviranus ATRC - U. Toronto, Industry Canada
David Weinkauf ATRC - U. Toronto, Industry Canada

Revision History

 
Version No. Release Date Comments
Base Document 1.0 02 February 2004 Initial version of the AccessForAll Meta-data Specification.
Public Draft 1.0 20 May 2004 Initial Public Draft version of the AccessForAll XML Binding:
a) removed compliance section.
b) adjusted new bindings.
Final Specification 1.0 12 July 2004 This is the formal Final Specification of the IMS AccessForAll Meta-data XML Binding.

Index

A
AccessForAll 1, 2, 3, 4
Accessibility 1, 2, 3

B
Behavior 1, 2, 3
Binding 1, 2

C
Conformance 1, 2

D
Dublin Core 1, 2, 3

E
Extension 1

I
IEEE 1, 2, 3
IMS International Conformance Program 1
IMS Specifications
AccessForAll Meta-data 1, 2, 3, 4
Content Packaging 1
Digital Repositories Interoperability 1, 2, 3
Learner Information Package 1
Learner Information Package Accessibility for LIP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Vocabulary Definition Exchange 1
Interoperability 1
 

L
Learning Object 1
LOM 1, 2, 3
LTSC 1

M
Meta-data 1, 2

N
Namespace 1
Normative 1, 2

P
Profile 1, 2

R
Resource 1
RFC 1, 2

S
Structure 1

U
URI 1

V
Vocabulary 1

W
W3C 1, 2, 3

X
XML 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
XSD 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
 

 

 

 

IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. ("IMS") is publishing the information contained in this IMS AccessForAll Meta-data XML Binding ("Specification") for purposes of scientific, experimental, and scholarly collaboration only.

IMS makes no warranty or representation regarding the accuracy or completeness of the Specification.
This material is provided on an "As Is" and "As Available" basis.

The Specification is at all times subject to change and revision without notice.

It is your sole responsibility to evaluate the usefulness, accuracy, and completeness of the Specification as it relates to you.

IMS would appreciate receiving your comments and suggestions.

Please contact IMS through our website at http://www.imsglobal.org

Please refer to Document Name:
IMS AccessForAll Meta-data XML Binding Revision: 12 July 2004