IMS Final Release

IMS Accessible Portable Item Protocol™ (APIP™): Technical Specification for QTIv2.1 Accessibility Features

 

Final Specification Version 1.0

 

Date Issued:             31 March 2014
Latest version:         http://www.imsglobal.org/apip/

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IMS draws attention to the fact that it is claimed that compliance with this specification may involve the use of Measured Progress U.S. patent 8,303,309. IMS takes no position concerning the evidence, validity or scope of such patent rights. Measured Progress has assured IMS that it is willing to license patent rights it owns or controls which would necessarily be infringed by any implementation of this specification to those licensees (Members and non-Members alike) desiring to implement this specification. The statement of Measured Progress to such effect has been filed with IMS. Information regarding a Reasonable and Non-Discriminatory - Zero cost (RAND-Z) license may be obtained from Measured Progress at http://www.measuredprogress.org/ipr-apip.

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Documents Name: IMS APIP Technical Specification for QTIv2.1 Accessibility Features v1.0 Final Specification –
Revision: 31 March 2014


 

 

1                  Introduction

1.1           Scope and Context

This document contains the technical specification of some of the assessment accessibility features created for the Accessible Portable Item Protocol (APIP™) Standard.  The APIP Standard provides assessment programs and question item developers a data model for standardizing the file format of digital test items. When applied properly, the APIP standards accomplish two important goals. First, the APIP standards allow digital test items to be ported across APIP compliant test item banks.  Second, the APIP standards provide a test delivery interface with all the information and resources required to make a test item accessible for students with a variety of disabilities and special needs.

The APIP standards build on the IMS Question and Test Interoperability™ (QTI™) v2.1 [QTI, 12a] and the IMS Access For All Personal Needs & Preferences (AfA PNP) v2.0 specifications.  However, these do not provide all of the functionality required by APIP and so extensions have been created to both specifications. This document details the extensions to the QTI v2.1 Specification in terms of the new information model and the corresponding XML Schema Definition (XSD) binding.  The associated best practises and examples are presented in [APIP, 14c].

IMS strongly encourages its members and the community to provide feedback to continue the evolution and improvement of the APIP standard. To join the IMS developer and conformance certification community focused on APIP and QTI please visit the IMS QTI/APIP Alliance online here: http://www.imsglobal.org/apip/index.html

Public contributions, comments and questions can be posted here: http://www.imsglobal.org/community/forum/categories.cfm?catid=110

1.2           Structure of this Document

The structure of the rest of this document is:

2.   New Features by the APIP

An overview of the new features and their relationship to the corresponding baseline IMS specifications;

3.   QTI Information model Extension

The information model description (using the IMS unified modelling language platform independent model representation) of the imported extensions to the QTI v2.1 specification;

4.   QTI Extension Binding Description

The binding description (using the IMS UML platform specific model representation for XSDs) of the extensions to the QTI v2.1 specification;

Appendix A The IMS UML Profile Notation

An explanation of the notational approach used in describing the new information models.

1.3           Related Documents

[APIP, 14a]                 Accessible Portable Item Protocol (APIP) Technical Specification Overview v1.0 Final Specification, G.Driscoll, T.Hoffmann, W.Ostler, M.Russell and C.Smythe, IMS Global, Inc., March 2014.

[APIP, 14b]                 Accessible Portable Item Protocol (APIP) Technical Specification v1.0 Final Specification, G.Driscoll, T.Hoffmann, W.Ostler, M.Russell and C.Smythe, IMS Global, Inc., March 2014.

[APIP, 14c]                 Accessible Portable Item Protocol (APIP) Best Practices & Implementation Guide v1.0 Final Specification, G.Driscoll, T.Hoffmann, W.Ostler, M.Russell and C.Smythe, IMS Global, Inc., March 2014.

[CSS3Speech, 12]       W3C CSS Speech Module (Candidate Recommendation)
http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-speech/, March 2012

[PLS, 08]                     W3C Pronunciation Lexicon Standard (PLS) Version 1.0
http://www.w3.org/TR/pronunciation-lexicon/, October 2008

[QTI, 12a]                   IMS Question & Test Interoperability Assessment Test, Section and Item Information Model v2.1 Final Specification, S.Lay and P.Gorissen, IMS Global Inc., August 2012.

[QTI, 12b]                   IMS Question & Test Interoperability XML Binding v2.1 Final Specificaiton, S.Lay and P.Gorissen, IMS Global, Inc., August 2012.

[QTI, 12c]                   IMS Question & Test Interoperability Implementation Guide v2.1 Final Specification, S.Lay and P.Gorissen, IMS Global, Inc., August 2012.

[QTI, 12d]                   IMS Question & Test Interoperability Conformance Guide v2.1 Final Specification, S.Lay and P.Gorissen, IMS Global, Inc., August 2012.

[QTI, 12e]                   IMS Question & Test Interoperability Metadata and Usage Data v2.1 Final Specification, S.Lay and P.Gorissen, IMS Global, Inc., August 2012.

[QTI, 12f]                   IMS Question & Test Interoperability Migration Guide v2.1 Final Specification, S.Lay and P.Gorissen, IMS Global, Inc., August 2012.

[QTI, 12g]                   IMS Question & Test Interoperability Overview v2.1 Final Specification, S.Lay and P.Gorissen, IMS Global, Inc., August 2012.

[QTI, 12h]                   IMS Question & Test Interoperability Results Reporting v2.1 Final Specification, S.Lay and P.Gorissen, IMS, Global Inc., August 2012.

[SSML, 11]                 W3C Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) Version 1.1.
http://www.w3.org/TR/speech-synthesis11/

1.4           Acronyms

AfA PNP        Access for All Personal Needs & Preferences

APIP               Accessible Portable Item Protocol

ASL                American Sign Language

CP                   Content Packaging

CSS                 Cascading Stylesheet

HTML             Hypertext Mark-up Language

I-BAT             IMS Binding Auto-generation Toolkit

IMS Global     IMS Global Learning Consortium

LUID              Locally Unique Identifier

PIM                 Platform Independent Model

PLS                 Pronunciation Lexicon Standard

PSM                Platform Specific Model        

QTI                 Question & Test Interoperability

SSML              Speech Synthesis Mark-up Language

UML               Unified Modeling Language

XML               Exchange Mark-up Language

XSD                XML Schema Definition

 

2                  New Features Required by APIP

The original IMS QTI specifications do not address content accessibility except in the form of best practice recommendations for HTML.  Therefore, support for accessibility in the form of special content requires extensions to the QTI and the corresponding XSD.  These extensions will be ignored by non-APIP enabled systems.

The relationship between the bindings of the new features with the original specifications is shown schematically in Figure 2.1. The new features are realised as their own XSD (shown as the XSD at the base of the diagram).  This new XSD is used to extend the functionality of the original/profiled QTI XSD (shown as the middle feature in the diagram) and these are used to validate the corresponding data file instances.

Schematic representation of the relationship between the original and new features.

Figure 2.1 Schematic representation of the relationship between the original and new features.

The APIP Accessibility Information component contains two categories of information that specify supplementary information that a test delivery engine may present to a test taker based on his or her access need.  The first category of information defines elements within shared stimulus, item, section and test content, and is used to mark up the content for which supplementary information may be provided. Content elements are defined by referencing specific blocks of text, media files, or parts of a table that appear within the Item Content Information component. Content elements can range in size from a single character to all content contained in the Item Content Information component.  In addition, a piece of stimulus content may be referenced by multiple item content definitions.

The second category of information contained in the Accessibility Information component specifies the supplementary information that is to be presented to test takers with a specific access need.  Supplementary information falls into two broad categories, namely alternate representations of content and additional information. Alternate representations include presentation of an item element in audio, Braille, tactile, or signed form. Additional information includes key word definitions, key word translations, flags, and scaffold supports.

This document describes the functionality and development of the new XSD that represent this new functionality.  The points where the APIP extensions are used in the QTIv2.1 are explicitly identified in the QTIv2.1 specification (externally name-spaced features).  The profiled versions of the QTIv2.1 specification used by APIP do not add any further points of use of the APIP features.

 

 

 

3                  Information Model Extension

3.1           APIPAccessibility Class

The PIM for the APIPAccessibility class is shown in Figure 3.1.

APIPAccessibility class.

Figure 3.1 APIPAccessibility class.


Table 3.1 The ‘AssessmentItem/FeedbackBlock/RubricBlock/TemplateBlock’ classes.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

AssessmentItem, FeedbackBlock, RubricBlock, TemplateBlock

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

Root

Children

[ …, apipAccessibility ], ordered

Description

These are the root containers for APIP information within QTIv2.1.  See the IMS Question & Test Interoperability v2.1 specification [QTI, 2012a].

 

 

3.1.1         ‘apipAccessibility’ Attribute Description

Table 3.2 The ‘apipAccessibility’ attribute for the QTIv2.1 classes.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

apipAccessibility

Data type

APIPAccessibiity

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the top-level container for the APIP material that is used to extend the various QTI features.  This attribute is a named extension feature in the QTIv2.1 specification.

 

 


3.1.2        ‘APIPAccessibility’ Class Description

Table 3.3 The ‘APIPAccessibility’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

APIPAccessibility

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

AssessmentItem (defined in the IMS QTI Information Model v2.1).

Children

[ companionMaterialsInfo, externalSupplementalAccessibility, inclusionOrderInfo, accessibilityInfo, extension ], ordered

Description

This is the root container for all of the APIP QTI Accessibility information that is required to extend the base IMS QTIv2.1 specification.  This class is the type for the attribute ‘apipAccessibility’ that is used to extend the QTI data model and in particular the AssessmentItem class.

 

 

3.1.3         ‘CompanionMaterialsInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.4 The ‘companionMaterialsInfo’ attribute for the APIPAccessibility class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

companionMaterialsInfo

Data type

CompanionMaterialsInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This identifies the set of companion materials that should be used when answering the questions presented during the assessment.  A number of different types of materials can be required in various combinations.

 

 

3.1.4        ‘ExternalSupplementalAccessibility’ Attribute Description

Table 3.5 The ‘externalSupplementalAccessibility’ attribute for the APIPAccessibility class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

externalSupplementalAccessibility

Data type

ExternalSupplementalAccessibility

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This identifies the set of supplemental information that must be used to provide further guidance on how to render the alternative accessibility information e.g. the use of the Pronunciation Lexicon Standard (PLS), etc.

 

 

3.1.5        ‘InclusionOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.6 The ‘inclusionOrder’ attribute for the APIPAccessibility class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

inclusionOrder

Data type

InclusionOrder

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is used to define the order that the assessment information is to be presented to a learner for a number of different accessibility preferences.

 

 


3.1.6        ‘AccessibilityInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.7 The ‘accessibilityInfo’ attribute for the APIPAccessibility class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

accessibilityInfo

Data type

AccessibilityInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the new accessibility content that is defined to enable the range of supported accessibility options to reconfigure the assessment content.  This content augments the original content that is defined for the associated QTI feature.

 

 

3.1.7         ‘Extension’ Attribute Description

Table 3.8 The ‘extension’ attribute for the APIPAccessibility class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

extension

Data type

Unspecified

Value space

Defined in terms of how the Information Model is realised by a binding.

Multiplicity

[0..unbounded], unordered

Description

This is a placeholder. It informs bindings of this Information Model as to the valid locations for the inclusion that extend the parent class.  The form of the extension is binding dependent.

 

 

 


3.2           CompanionMaterialsInfo Class

The PIM for the CompanionMaterialsInfo class is shown in Figure 3.2.

CompanionMaterialsInfo class.

Figure 3.2 CompanionMaterialsInfo class.


Table 3.9 The ‘CompanionMaterialsInfo’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

CompanionMaterialsInfo

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

APIPAccessibility

Children

[ calculator, rule, protractor, digitalMaterial, physicalMaterial, readingPassage, extension ], ordered

Description

This is the container for the information about the companion materials that are available to a learner undertaking the assessment.

 

 

3.2.1         ‘Calculator’ Attribute Description

Table 3.10 The ‘calculator’ attribute for the CompanionMaterialsInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

calculator

Data type

Calculator

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This refers to the information that is available about the calculator that is permitted/required for use in the assessment.

 

 


3.2.2         ‘Rule’ Attribute Description

Table 3.11 The ‘rule’ attribute for the CompanionMaterialsInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

rule

Data type

Rule

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..*]

Description

This refers to the information that is available about the Rules that are permitted/required for use in the assessment.

 

 

3.2.3         ‘Protractor’ Attribute Description

Table 3.12 The ‘protractor’ attribute for the CompanionMaterialsInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

protractor

Data type

Protractor

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..*]

Description

This refers to the information that is available about the protractors that are permitted/required for use in the assessment.

 

 


3.2.4         ‘DigitalMaterial’ Attribute Description

Table 3.13 The ‘digitalMaterial’ attribute for the CompanionMaterialsInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

digitalMaterial

Data type

ItemFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..*]

Description

This refers to the external digital material that is available for use with the assessment e.g. a map, formula sheet, etc. The digital material is available at the location identified by a URL.

 

 

3.2.5         ‘PhysicalMaterial’ Attribute Description

Table 3.14 The ‘physicalMaterial’ attribute for the CompanionMaterialsInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

physicalMaterial

Data type

NormalizedString (See Table A1.1)

Value space

Normalized string.
Length [1-2047] characters.

Multiplicity

[0..*]

Description

This refers to the external physical material that is available for use with the assessment e.g. a map, formula sheet, etc. The associated text can be used to describe the material and where and when it is to be used.

 

 


3.2.6        ‘ReadingPassage’ Attribute Description

Table 3.15 The ‘readingPassage’ attribute for the CompanionMaterialsInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

readingPassage

Data type

ItemFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This refers to the information that is available about the reading passage that is permitted/required for use in the assessment. The reading passage is available at the location identified by a URL.

 

 

3.2.7        ‘Extension’ Attribute Description

Table 3.16 The ‘extension’ attribute for the CompanionMaterialsInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

extension

Data type

Unspecified

Value space

Defined in terms of how the Information Model is realised by a binding.

Multiplicity

[0..unbounded], unordered

Description

This is a placeholder. It informs bindings of this Information Model as to the valid locations for the inclusion that extend the parent class.    The form of the extension is binding dependent.

 

 


3.2.8        ‘Calculator’ Class

The PIM for the Calculator class is shown in Figure 3.2.

Table 3.17 The ‘Calculator’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

Calculator

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

CompanionMaterialsInfo

Children

[ calculatorType, description, calculatorInfo ], ordered

Description

This is the container for the information about the calculator that is required/permitted for use by the learner undertaking the assessment.

 

 

3.2.8.1  ‘CalculatorType’ Attribute Description

Table 3.18 The ‘calculatorType’ attribute for the Calculator class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

calculatorType

Data type

Enumeration

Value space

Enumeration set of: { Basic | Standard | Scientific |  Graphing }

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

The definition of the set of permitted calculators for use with the assessment.

 

 


3.2.8.2  ‘Description’ Attribute Description

Table 3.19 The ‘description’ attribute for the Calculator class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

description

Data type

NormalizedString

Value space

Normalized string (see Appendix A).
Length [1-2047] characters.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

Provides for a human readable description of the functionality/capability of the calculator that is available to the learner.

 

 

3.2.8.3  ‘CalculatorInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.20 The ‘calculatorInfo’ attribute for the Calculator class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

calculatorInfo

Data type

ItemInfoFile

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This refers to the access to the calculator itself that is permitted/required for use in the assessment. The calculator is available at the location identified by a URI.

 

 


3.2.9        ‘ItemFileInfo’ Class

The PIM for the ItemFile class is shown in Figure 3.2.

Table 3.21 The ‘ItemFileInfo’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

ItemInfoFile

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

CompanionMaterialsInfo

Children

[ fileHref ]

Description

This is the container for information about an external file that contains information to be made available to the learner.

 

 

3.2.9.1  ‘FileHref’ Attribute Description

Table 3.22 The‘fileHref’ attribute for the ItemFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

fileHref

Data type

FileHref

Value space

Normalized String (see Appendix A) containing a URI.
Length [1-1023] characters.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the URI for the associated content file.

 

 


3.3           Rule Class

The PIM for the Rule class is shown in Figure 3.3.

Rule class

Figure 3.3 Rule class


Table 3.23 The ‘Rule’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

Rule

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

CompanionMaterials

Children

[ description, ( ruleSystemSI | ruleSystemUS ) ], ordered with selection

Description

The container for the information about the rule that is permitted/required for use in the assessment.  The rule is defined in terms of SI or US units.

 

 

3.3.1        ‘Description’ Attribute Description

Table 3.24 The ‘description’ attribute for the Rule class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

description

Data type

Normalized String (see Appendix A).

Value space

Normalized string.
Length [1-1023] characters.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

Provides for a human readable description of the functionality/capability of the rule that is available to the learner.

 

 


3.3.2        ‘RuleSystemSI’ Attribute Description

Table 3.25 The ‘ruleSystemSI’ attribute for the Rule class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

ruleSystemSI

Data type

RuleSystemSI

Value space

Container (Sequence)

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

The container for the information about the rule defined in terms of SI units.

 

 

3.3.3        ‘RuleSystemUS’ Attribute Description

Table 3.26 The ‘ruleSystemUS’ attribute for the Rule class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

ruleSystemUS

Data type

RuleSystemUS

Value space

Container (Sequence)

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

The container for the information about the rule defined in terms of US units.

 

 

 


3.3.4        ‘SIRuleSystem’ Class

The PIM for the SIRuleSystem class is given in Figure 3.3.

Table 3.27 The ‘SIRuleSystem’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

SIRuleSystem

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

Rule

Children

[ minimumLength, minorIncrement, majorIncrement ], ordered

Description

The container for the information about the rule that is permitted/required for use in the assessment.  The rule is defined in terms of SI units.

 

 

3.3.5        ‘MinimumLength’ Attribute Description

Table 3.28 The ‘minimumLength’ attribute for the SIRuleSystem class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

minimumLength

Data type

Integer

Value space

1 ≤ minimumLength ≤ 216-1

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the container for the minimum length of the rule.  The length is defined as a multiple of the unit of the major increment.

 

 


3.3.6        ‘MinorIncrement’ Attribute Description

Table 3.29 The ‘minorIncrement’ attribute for the SIRuleSystem class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

minorIncrement

Data type

SILinearValue

Value space

Container (Sequence)

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the length of the minor increment for the rule.

 

 

3.3.7        ‘MajorIncrement’ Attribute Description

Table 3.30 The ‘majorIncrement’ attribute for the SIRuleSystem class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

majorIncrement

Data type

SILinearValue

Value space

Container (Sequence)

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the container for the length of the major increment for the rule.

 

 

 


3.3.8        ‘SILinearValue’ Class

The PIM for the SILinearValue class is shown in Figure 3.3.

Table 3.31 The ‘SILinearValue’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

LinearValue

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

Rule

Children

[ unit ], ordered

Value space

Decimal [0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1000.0]

Description

The container for the information about the increment (length and unit) of a Rule.  The value is the length in the associated type of unit.

 

 

3.3.8.1  ‘Unit’ Attribute Description

Table 3.32 The ‘unit’ attribute for the SILinearValue class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

unit

Data type

Enumeration.

Value space

Enumeration set of: { Millimeter | Centimeter | Meter |  Kilometer }

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This defines the type unit of length that are permitted for the rule.

 

 

3.3.9        ‘USRuleSystem’ Class

The PIM for the USRuleSystem class is given in Figure 3.3.

Table 3.33 The ‘USRuleSystem’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

USRuleSystem

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

Rule

Children

[ minimumLength, minorIncrement, majorIncrement ], ordered

Description

The container for the information about the rule that is permitted/required for use in the assessment.  The rule is defined in terms of US units.

 

 

3.3.10    ‘MinimumLength’ Attribute Description

Table 3.34 The ‘minimumLength’ attribute for the USRuleSystem class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

minimumLength

Data type

Integer

Value space

1 ≤ minimumLength ≤ 216-1

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the container for the minimum length of the rule.  The length is defined as a multiple of the unit of the major increment.

 

 


3.3.11    ‘MinorIncrement’ Attribute Description

Table 3.35 The ‘minorIncrement’ attribute for the USRuleSystem class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

minorIncrement

Data type

USLinearValue

Value space

Container (Sequence)

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the length of the minor increment for the rule.

 

 

3.3.12    ‘MajorIncrement’ Attribute Description

Table 3.36 The ‘majorIncrement’ attribute for the USRuleSystem class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

majorIncrement

Data type

USLinearValue

Value space

Container (Sequence)

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the container for the length of the major increment for the rule.

 

 

 


3.3.13    ‘USLinearValue’ Class

The PIM for the USLinearValue class is shown in Figure 3.3.

Table 3.37 The ‘USLinearValue’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

LinearValue

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

Rule

Children

[ unit ], ordered

Value space

Decimal [0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1000.0]

Description

The container for the information about the increment (length and unit) of a Rule.  The value is the length in the associated type of unit.

 

 

3.3.13.1   ‘Unit’ Attribute Description

Table 3.38 The ‘unit’ attribute for the USLinearValue class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

unit

Data type

Enumeration.

Value space

Enumeration set of: { Inch | Foot | Yard | Mile }

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This defines the type unit of length that are permitted for the rule.

 

 


3.4           Protractor Class

The PIM for the Protractor class is shown in Figure 3.4.

Protractor class.

Figure 3.4 Protractor class.


Table 3.39 Description of the ‘Protractor’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

Protractor

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

CompanionMaterialsInfo

Children

[ description, ( incrementUS | incrementSI ) ], ordered and selection

Description

This is the container for the information about the permitted characteristics of the protractor companion material.

 

 

3.4.1        ‘Description’ Attribute Description

Table 3.40 Description of the ‘description’ attribute for the Protractor class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

description

Data type

Normalized String (see Appendix A).

Value space

Normalized string.
Length [1-1023] characters.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

Provides for a human readable description of the functionality/capability of the protractor that is available to the learner.

 

 


3.4.2        ‘IncrementSI’ Attribute Description

Table 3.41 The ‘incrementSI’ attribute for the Protractor class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

incrementSI

Data type

IncrementSI

Value space

Container (Sequence)

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

The container for the information about the protractor defined in terms of SI units.

 

 

3.4.3        ‘IncrementUS’ Attribute Description

Table 3.42 The ‘incrementUS’ attribute for the Protractor class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

incrementUS

Data type

IncrementUS

Value space

Container (Sequence)

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

The container for the information about the protractor defined in terms of US units.

 

 


3.4.4        ‘IncrementUS’ Class

The PIM for the IncrementUS class is given in Figure 3.4.

Table 3.43 The ‘IncrementUS’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

IncrementUS

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

Protractor

Children

[ minorIncrement, majorIncrement ], ordered

Description

The container for the information about the protractor that is permitted/required for use in the assessment.  The rule is defined in terms of US units.

 

 

3.4.5        ‘MinorIncrement’ Attribute Description

Table 3.44 Description of the ‘minorIncrement’ attribute for the IncrementUS class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

minorIncrement

Data type

RadialUSValue

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the information about the minor increments used on the protractor.

 

 

3.4.6        ‘MajorIncrement’ Attribute Description

Table 3.45 Description of the ‘majorIncrement’ attribute for the IncrementUS class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

increment

Data type

RadialUSValue

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the information about the major increments used on the protractor.

 

 

3.4.7        ‘RadialUSValue’ Class Description

Table 3.46 Description of the ‘RadialUSValue’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

RadialUSValue

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

IncrementUS

Children

[ unit ]

Value space

Decimal [0.0 ≤ x ≤ 359.99] – for unit of degree
Decimal [0.0 ≤ x ≤ 59.99] – for unit of second and minute

Description

The container for the information about the increment size for a protractor.  The value is in the associated type of unit.

 

 


3.4.8        ‘Unit’ Attribute Description

Table 3.47 The ‘unit’ attribute for the RadialUSValue class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

unit

Data type

Enumeration.

Value space

Enumeration set of: { Degree | Minute | Second }

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This defines the US unit of radial increment that is used for the protractor.

 

 

3.4.9        ‘IncrementSI’ Class

The PIM for the IncrementSI class is given in Figure 3.4.

Table 3.48 The ‘IncrementSI’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

IncrementSI

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

Protractor

Children

[ minorIncrement, majorIncrement ], ordered

Description

The container for the information about the protractor that is permitted/required for use in the assessment.  The protractor is defined in terms of SI units.

 

 


3.4.10    ‘MinorIncrement’ Attribute Description

Table 3.49 Description of the ‘minorIncrement’ attribute for the IncrementSI class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

increment

Data type

RadialSIValue

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the information about the minor increments used on the protractor.

 

 

3.4.11    ‘MajorIncrement’ Attribute Description

Table 3.50 Description of the ‘majorIncrement’ attribute for the IncrementSI class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

increment

Data type

RadialSIValue

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the container for the information about the major increments used on the protractor.

 

 


3.4.12    ‘RadialSIValue’ Class Description

Table 3.51 Description of the ‘RadialSIValue’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

RadialSIValue

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

IncrementSI

Children

[ unit ]

Value space

Decimal [0.0 ≤ x ≤ 2p]

Description

The container for the information about the increment size for a protractor.  The value is in the associated type of unit.

 

 

3.4.13    ‘Unit’ Attribute Description

Table 3.52 The ‘unit’ attribute for the RadialUSValue class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

unit

Data type

Enumeration.

Value space

Enumeration set of: { Radian }

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This defines the SI unit of radial increment that is used for the protractor.

 

 


3.5            ExternalSupplementalAccessibility Class

The PIM for the ExternalSupplementalAccessibility class is shown in Figure 3.5.

ExternalSupplementalAccessibility class.

Figure 3.5 ExternalSupplementalAccessibility class.


Table 3.53 The ‘ExternalSupplementalAccessibility’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

ExternalSupplementalAccessibility

Class type

Container (Unordered)

Parents

APIPAccessibility

Children

[textToSpeechLexicon, textToSpeechStylesheet , extension ], unordered

Description

This is the container for the supplemental information that can be used to provide further guidance on how to render the alternative accessibility information e.g. the use of the Pronunciation Lexicon Standard (PLS), etc.

 

 

3.5.1        ‘TextToSpeechLexicon’ Attribute Description

Table 3.54 The ‘textToSpeechLexicon’ attribute for the ExternalSupplementalAccessibility class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textToSpeechLexicon

Data type

TextToSpeechLexicon

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0.. unbounded]

Description

This describes the application of the Pronunciation Lexicon Standard (PLS) to support the text to speech rendering of the alternative accessibility text.  The PLS files linked via ‘textToSpeechLexicon’ are used by all spoken “audiences” e.g. “textOnly”, “nonvisual”, “textGraphics”, etc.  The files must conform to a specific version of the PLS format, namely 1.0 (currently a W3C recommendation).

 

 


3.5.2        ‘TextToSpeechStylesheet’ Attribute Description

Table 3.55 The ‘textToSpeechStylesheet’ attribute for the ExternalSupplementalAccessibility class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textToSpeechStylesheet

Data type

TextToSpeechStylesheet

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0.. unbounded]

Description

This is the information on the application of the CSS3 to support the text to speech rendering of the alternative accessibility text.  CSS3 Speech files linked via ‘textToSpeechStyleSheet’ are to be used by all spoken “audiences” e.g. “textOnly”, “nonvisual”, “textGraphics”, etc.  The linked files should conform to the CSS Speech Module specification, currently a W3C Candidate Recommendation.  Non-speech-related visual style properties found within these CSS Speech files must be ignored by conforming systems.

 

 

3.5.3        ‘Extension’ Attribute Description

Table 3.56 The ‘extension’ attribute for the ExternalSupplementalAccessibility class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

extension

Data type

Unspecified

Value space

Defined in terms of how the Information Model is realised by a binding.

Multiplicity

[0..unbounded], unordered

Description

This is a placeholder. It informs bindings of this Information Model as to the valid locations for the inclusion that extend the parent class.    The form of the extension is binding dependent.

 

3.5.4         ‘TextToSpeechSupplement’ Class

The PIM for the TextToSpeechSupplement class is shown in Figure 3.5.

Table 3.57 The ‘TextToSpeechSupplement’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

TextToSpeechSupplement

Class type

Container (DerivedType)

Parents

ExternalSupplementalAccessibility

Children

[ source ], unordered

Description

The source for the associated description file.

 

 

3.5.4.1  ‘Source’ Attribute Description

Table 3.58 The ‘source’ attribute for the TextToSpeechSupplement class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

source

Data type

URI

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

The URI for the associated text to speech supplemental accessibility information.

 

 


3.6           InclusionOrder Class

The PIM for the InclusionOrder class is shown in Figure 3.6.

InclusionOrder class.

Figure 3.6 InclusionOrder class.


Table 3.59 The ‘InclusionOrder’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

InclusionOrder

Class type

Container (Unordered)

Parents

APIPAccessibility

Children

[ brailleDefaultOrder, textOnlyDefaultOrder, textOnlyOnDemandOrder, textGraphicsDefaultOrder, textGraphicsOnDemandOrder, graphicsOnlyOnDemandOrder, nonVisualDefaultOrder, aslDefaultOrder, aslOnDemandOrder, signedEnglishDefaultOrder, signedEnglishOnDemandOrder, extension ], unordered

Description

This is the container for the set of inclusion orders that can be defined for an assessment feature.  Each assessment feature can have one set of inclusion orders.

 

 

3.6.1        ‘BrailleDefaultOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.60 The ‘brailleDefaultOrder’ attribute for the InclusionOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

brailleDefaultOrder

Data type

ElementOrderList

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the default inclusion order information for the accessibility content that is to be rendered as the alternative presentation for Braille.

 

 

 

3.6.2        ‘TextOnlyDefaultOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.61 The ‘textOnlyDefaultOrder’ attribute for the InclusionOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textOnlyDefaultOrder

Data type

ElementOrderList

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the default inclusion order information for the accessibility content that is to be rendered as the alternative presentation of textual information in audio forms. Text-based audio access is specific to test takers who are able to view contents displayed on a screen, but may need assistance accessing those contents. Text-based audio access provides an audio representation of alphanumeric content.

 

 

3.6.3        ‘TextOnlyOnDemandOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.62 The ‘textOnlyOnDemandOrder’ attribute for the InclusionOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textOnlyOnDemandOrder

Data type

ElementOrderList

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the on demand inclusion order information for the accessibility content that is to be rendered as the alternative presentation of textual information in audio forms. The form in which the user accesses the information is implementation dependent.

 

3.6.4        ‘TextGraphicsDefaultOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.63 The ‘textGraphicsDefaultOrder’ attribute for the InclusionOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textGraphicsDefaultOrder

Data type

ElementOrderList

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the default inclusion order information for the accessibility content that is available in audio forms for text and graphical content.  Text-based and graphic audio access is specific to test takers who have difficulty viewing contents displayed on a screen and need assistance accessing both alphanumeric content and graphical elements. Text-based and graphic audio access provides an audio representation of alphanumeric content and audio descriptions of information displayed in graphical and tabular form.

 

 

3.6.5        ‘TextGraphicsOnDemandOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.64 The ‘textGraphicsOnDemandOrder’ attribute for the InclusionOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textGraphicsOnDemandOrder

Data type

ElementOrderList

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the on demand inclusion order information for the accessibility content that is available in audio forms for text and graphical content. The form in which the user accesses the information is implementation dependent.

 

3.6.6        ‘GraphicsOnlyOnDemandOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.65 The ‘GraphicsOnlyOnDemandOrder’ attribute for the InclusionOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

graphicsOnlyOnDemandOrder

Data type

ElementOrderList

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the on demand inclusion order information for the accessibility content that is available in audio forms for graphical only content. The form in which the user accesses the information is implementation dependent.

 

 

3.6.7        ‘NonVisualDefaultOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.66 The ‘nonVisualDefaultOrder’ attribute for the InclusionOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

nonVisualDefaultOrder

Data type

ElementOrderList

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

Non-visual access is specific to test takers who are legally blind and who require an audio presentation and/or text for Braille display of item content. Blind access requires audio and/or Braille Text representations of alphanumeric, graphical, and tabular content. Blind access also typically presents item elements automatically to the test taker, but is selective about which item elements are presented. This is the container for the default inclusion order information for the accessibility content that is available for non-visual usage.

 

3.6.8        ‘AslDefaultOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.67 The ‘aslDefaultOrder’ attribute for the InclusionOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

aslDefaultOrder

Data type

ElementOrderList

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the default order information for the accessibility content that is available in the form of ASL.  The form in which the user accesses the information is implementation dependent.

 

 

3.6.9        ‘AslOnDemandOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.68 The ‘aslOnDemandOrder’ attribute for the InclusionOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

aslOnDemandOrder

Data type

ElementOrderList

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the on demand inclusion order information for the accessibility content that is available in the form of ASL.  The form in which the user accesses the information is implementation dependent.

 

 


3.6.10    ‘SignedEnglishDefaultOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.69 The ‘signedEnglishDefaultOrder’ attribute for the InclusionOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

signedEnglishDefaultOrder

Data type

ElementOrderList

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the default order information for the accessibility content that is available in the form of Signed English.  The form in which the user accesses the information is implementation dependent.

 

 

3.6.11    ‘SignedEnglishOnDemandOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.70 The ‘signedEnglishOnDemandOrder’ attribute for the InclusionOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

signedEnglishOnDemandOrder

Data type

ElementOrderList

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the container for the on demand inclusion order information for the accessibility content that is available in the form of Signed English.  The form in which the user accesses the information is implementation dependent.

 

 

3.6.12    ‘Extension’ Attribute Description

Table 3.71 The ‘extension’ attribute for the InclusionOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

extension

Data type

Unspecified

Value space

Defined in terms of how the Information Model is realised by a binding.

Multiplicity

[0..unbounded], unordered

Description

This is a placeholder. It informs bindings of this Information Model as to the valid locations that extend the parent class.    The form of the extension is binding dependent.

 

 

3.6.13    ‘ElementOrderList’ Class

The PIM for the ElementOrderList class is shown in Figure 3.6.

Table 3.72 The ‘ElementOrderList’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

ElementOrderList

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

IncusionOrder

Children

[ elementOrder ], unordered

Description

This is the container for the ordered list of alternative accessibility elements that are to be rendered for one of the inclusion orders.

 

 


Table 3.73 The ‘elementOrder’ attribute for the ElementOrderList class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

elementOrder

Data type

ElementOrder

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1..unbounded]

Description

This is the pointer to the information about the inclusion order for each alternative accessibility content structure.

 

 

3.6.14    ‘ElementOrder’ Class

The PIM for the ElementOrder class is shown in Figure 3.6.

Table 3.74 The ‘ElementOrder’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

ElementOrder

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

ElementOrderList

Children

[ identifierRef, order ], ordered

Description

This is the container for the identification of the alternative accessibility element (this locally unique identifier is assigned as part of the ‘AccessElement’ information) and its relative order within the inclusion order set.

 

 


Table 3.75 The ‘identifierRef’ attribute for the ElementOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

identifierRef

Data type

LUIDRef

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the reference to the locally unique identifier that has been assigned to the alternative accessibility content (assigned as part of the ‘AccessElement’ information).

 

 

Table 3.76 The ‘order’ attribute for the ElementOrder class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

order

Data type

Integer

Value space

1 ≤ order ≤ 2048

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the relative order for the alternative accessibility content in the associated ordered list for the inclusion order.

 

 

 


3.7            AccessibilityInfo Information Model

The PIM for the AccessibilityInfo class is shown in Figure 3.7.

AccessibilityInfo class.

Figure 3.7 AccessibilityInfo class.


Table 3.77 The ‘AccessibilityInfo’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

AccessibilityInfo

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

APIPAccessibility

Children

[ accessElement ]

Description

This is the container for all of the information about the alternative accessibility content.

 

 

3.7.1        ‘AccessElement’ Attribute Description

Table 3.78 The ‘accessElement’ attribute for the AccessibilityInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

accessElement

Data type

AccessElement

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1.. unbounded]

Description

The accessibility information consists of a list of ‘AccessElement’ structures.  Each ‘AccessElement’ describes the nature of one alternative accessibility form.

 

 


3.7.2        ‘AccessElement’ Class Description

The PIM for the AccessElement class is shown in Figure 3.7.

Table 3.79 The ‘AccessElement’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

AccessElement

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

AccessibilityInfo

Children

[ identifier, contentLinkInfo, relatedElementInfo ], ordered

Description

This is the container for the information about a single access element.

 

 

3.7.2.1  ‘Identifier’ Attribute Description

Table 3.80 The ‘identifier’ attribute for the AccessElement class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

identifier

Data type

LUID

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the locally unique identifier for the access element.  This is the identifier referenced by the ‘InclusionOrder’ structure.

 

 


3.7.2.2  ‘ContentLinkInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.81 The ‘contentLinkInfo’ attribute for the AccessElement class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

contentLinkInfo

Data type

ContentLinkInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1..unbounded], unordered

Description

This is the pointer to the information that describes the relationships between the new alternative accessibility content and the original QTI content.  An access element may also point to another access element i.e. recursive alternative content structures are possible.

 

 

3.7.2.3  ‘RelatedElementInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.82 The ‘relatedElementInfo’ attribute for the AccessElement class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

relatedElementInfo

Data type

RelatedElementInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the link to the set of alternative accessibility content definitions for associated access element.

 

 


3.7.3        ‘ContentLinkInfo’ Class Description

The PIM for the ContentLinkInfo class is shown in Figure 3.8.

ContentLinkInfo class.

Figure 3.8 ContentLinkInfo class.


Table 3.83 The ‘ContentLinkInfo’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

ContentLinkInfo

Class type

Container (Selection)

Parents

AccessElement

Children

[ apipLinkIdentifierRef, qtiIdentifierRef ], unordered
[ textLink, objectLink ], selection

Description

This is the container for the information that describes how the new alternative accessibility content is linked to either the QTI content and/or another alternative accessibility content features plus either a text feature or an object feature.

 

 

3.7.3.1  ‘ApipLinkIdentifierRef’ Attribute Description

Table 3.84 The ‘apipLinkIdentifierRef’ attribute for the ContentLinkInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

apipLinkIdentifierRef

Data type

LUIDRef

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the pointer to other alternative accessibility content that has been defined in an access element definition.

 

 


3.7.3.2  ‘QtiLinkIdentifierRef’ Attribute Description

Table 3.85 The ‘qtiLinkIdentifierRef’ attribute for the ContentLinkInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

qtiLinkIdentifierRef

Data type

NormalizedString

Value space

Normalized string.
Length [1-1023] characters.

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the pointer to a feature within the QTI content described in the same instance file.  The associated QTI structured is expected to have an ‘id’ attribute to which the value of the ‘qtiLinkIdentifierRef’ refers.

 

 

3.7.3.3  ‘textLink’ Attribute Description

Table 3.86 The ‘textLink’ attribute for the ContentLinkInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textLink

Data type

TextLink

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The pointer to the text structure description to which the content link refers.

 

 


3.7.3.4  ‘ObjectLink’ Attribute Description

Table 3.87 The ‘objectLink’ attribute for the ContentLinkInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

objectLink

Data type

Empty

Value space

N/A

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The pointer to the object structure to which the content links refers i.e. anything else other than a text string.  The use of this pointer shows that the associated access element content is to be applied to the whole structure identified by the content link.

 

 

3.7.4        ‘TextLink’ Class Description

The PIM for the TextLink class is shown in Figure 3.8.

Table 3.88 The ‘TextLink’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

TextLink

Class type

Container (Selection)

Parents

ContentLinkInfo

Children

[ fullString, wordLink, characterLink, characterStringLink ], selection

Description

The container for the information that describes to which part of a text string the alternative accessibility content is to be applied.

 

 


3.7.4.1  ‘FullString’ Attribute Description

Table 3.89 The ‘fullString’ attribute for the TextLink class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

fullString

Data type

Empty

Value space

N/A

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is used to show that the accessibility content is an alternative to the full text string.

 

 

3.7.4.2  ‘WordLink’ Attribute Description

Table 3.90 The ‘wordLink’ attribute for the TextLink class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

wordLink

Data type

Integer

Value space

Integer [1 ≤ wordLink ≤ 9999]

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is used to show that the accessibility content is an alternative to a particular word in the text string.  A word is any set of characters delineated by spaces, tabs and punctuation marks.

 

 


3.7.4.3  ‘CharacterLink’ Attribute Description

Table 3.91 The ‘characterLink’ attribute for the TextLink class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

characterLink

Data type

Integer

Value space

Integer [1 ≤ characterLink ≤ 9999]

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is used to show that the accessibility content is an alternative to a particular character (this include all spaces, tabs, punctuation marks etc.).

 

 

3.7.4.4  ‘CharacterStringLink’ Attribute Description

Table 3.92 The ‘characterStringLink’ attribute for the TextLink class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

characterStringLink

Data type

CharacterStringLink

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is used to show that the accessibility content is an alternative to a substring.

 

 


3.7.5        ‘CharacterStringLink’ Class Description

The PIM for the CharacterStringLink class is shown in Figure 3.8.

Table 3.93 The ‘CharacterStringLink’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

CharacterStringLink

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

TextLink

Children

[ startCharacter, stopCharacter ], ordered

Description

This is the container for the information that defines the substring to which the alternative accessibility content refers.  This should not be used to identify strings of only one character length.

 

 

3.7.5.1  ‘StartCharacter’ Attribute Description

Table 3.94 The ‘startCharacter’ attribute for the CharacterStringLink class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

startCharacter

Data type

Integer

Value space

Integer [1 ≤ startCharacter ≤ 9999] and startCharacter < stopCharacter

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

The start character for the substring (this includes specs, tabs, punctuation marks, etc.).

 

 


3.7.5.2  ‘StopCharacter’ Attribute Description

Table 3.95 The ‘stopCharacter’ attribute for the CharacterStringLink class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

stopCharacter

Data type

Integer

Value space

Integer [1 ≤ stopCharacter ≤ 9999] and stopCharacter > startCharacter

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

The end character for the substring (this includes specs, tabs, punctuation marks, etc.).

 

 

3.7.6         ‘RelatedElementInfo’ Class Description

The PIM for the RelatedElementInfo class is shown in Figure 3.7.

Table 3.96 The ‘RelatedElementInfo’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

RelatedElementInfo

Class type

Container (Unordered)

Parents

AccessElement

Children

[ spoken, brailleText, tactileFile, signing, keyWordTranslation, revealAlternativeRepresentation, guidance, structuredMask, scaffold, chunk, answerReduction, keyWordEmphasis, extension ], unordered

Description

This is the container for the set of descriptions for the various types of alternative accessibility content.

 

 


3.7.6.1  ‘Spoken’ Attribute Description

Table 3.97 The ‘spoken’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

spoken

Data type

Spoken

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The container for alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered using spoken formats.

 

 

3.7.6.2  ‘BrailleText’ Attribute Description

Table 3.98 The ‘brailleText’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

brailleText

Data type

BrailleText

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The container for alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered using Braille text formats.

 

 


3.7.6.3  ‘TactileFile’ Attribute Description

Table 3.99 The ‘tactileFile’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

tactileFile

Data type

TactileFile

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The container for alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered using tactile formats.

 

 

3.7.6.4   ‘Signing’ Attribute Description

Table 3.100 The ‘signing’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

signing

Data type

Signing

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The container for alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered using signing formats.

 

 


3.7.6.5  ‘keyWordTranslation’ Attribute Description

Table 3.101 The ‘keyWordTranslation’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

keyWordTranslation

Data type

KeyWordTranslation

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The container for alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered using keyword translation formats.

 

 

3.7.6.6  ‘RevealAlternativeRepresentation’ Attribute Description

Table 3.102 The ‘revealAlternativeRepresentation’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

revealAlternativeRepresentation

Data type

RevealAlternativeRepresentation

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The container for alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered using a set of defined file formats.

 

 


3.7.6.7  ‘Guidance’ Attribute Description

Table 3.103 The ‘guidance’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

guidance

Data type

Guidance

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The container for alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered when guidance is enabled.

 

 

3.7.6.8  ‘StructuredMask’ Attribute Description

Table 3.104 The ‘structuredMask’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

structuredMask

Data type

StructuredMask

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The container for alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered when masking is enabled.

 

 


3.7.6.9  ‘Scaffold’ Attribute Description

Table 3.105 The ‘scaffold’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

scaffold

Data type

Scaffold

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The container for alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered when scaffolding is enabled.

 

 

3.7.6.10   ‘Chunk’ Attribute Description

Table 3.106 The ‘chunk’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

chunk

Data type

Empty.

Value space

N/A

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered when chunking is enabled.

 

 


3.7.6.11   ‘AnswerReduction’ Attribute Description

Table 3.107 The ‘answerReduction’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

answerReduction

Data type

AnswerReduction

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The container for alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered when answer reduction is enabled.

 

 

3.7.6.12   ‘KeyWordEmphasis’ Attribute Description

Table 3.108 The ‘keyWordEmphasis’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

keyWordEmphasis

Data type

Empty

Value space

N/A

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered when highlighting is enabled.

 

 


3.7.6.13   ‘Extension’ Attribute Description

Table 3.109 The ‘extension’ attribute for the RelatedElementInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

extension

Data type

Unspecified

Value space

Defined in terms of how the Information Model is realised by a binding.

Multiplicity

[0..unbounded], unordered

Description

This is a placeholder. It informs bindings of this Information Model as to the valid locations that extend the parent class.  The form of the extension is dependent on the binding.

 

 


3.7.7        ‘Spoken’ Class Description

The PIM for the Spoken class is shown in Figure 3.9.

Spoken class.

Figure 3.9 Spoken class.


Table 3.110 The ‘Spoken’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

Spoken

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

RelatedElementInfo

Children

[ audioFileInfo, spokenText, textToSpeechPronunication, textToSpeechPronunciationSSML ], ordered

Description

The container for the alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered using spoken formats. Audio presentation of narrative text, graphic, or other content element can be provided in two ways. For the first method, an audio file can be assigned to an element and the audio file can be played by the test delivery system. A separate audio file may be created for each content element or a portion of an audio file may be assigned to a content element. For the second method, a text-to-speech tool may be used to present an audio representation of the element. Standard text-to-speech read aloud requires the item writer to specify the text that is to be presented by the text-to-speech tool. Use of Speech Synthesis Markup Language is also supported as an alternative.

 

 

3.7.7.1  ‘AudioFileInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.111 The ‘audioFileInfo’ attribute for the Spoken class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

audioFileInfo

Data type

AudioFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..*]

Description

This points to the audio file that is to be played for the spoken format rendering.

 

3.7.7.2   ‘SpokenText’ Attribute Description

Table 3.112 The ‘spokenText’ attribute for the Spoken class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

spokenText

Data type

LabelledString

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the text string that is to be converted to the equivalent audio format using a text-to-speech tool.

 

 

3.7.7.3   ‘TextToSpeechPronunciation’ Attribute Description

Table 3.113 The ‘textToSpeechPronunciation’ attribute for the Spoken class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textToSpeechPronunciation

Data type

LabelledString

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the text string that is to be converted to the equivalent audio format using a text-to-speech tool.  The text is structured to provide explicit pronunciation guidance.

 

 


3.7.7.4  ‘TextToSpeechPronunciationSSML’ Attribute Description

Table 3.114 The ‘textToSpeechPronunciationSSML’ attribute for the Spoken class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textToSpeechPronunciationSSML

Data type

TextToSpeechSSML

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) is designed to provide a rich, XML-based markup language for assisting the generation of synthetic speech in Web and other applications. The essential role of SSML is to provide authors of synthesizable textual content a standard way to control aspects of speech such as pronunciation, volume, pitch, rate, etc. across different synthesis-capable platforms that implement SSML. This provides another way to supply the text to speech pronunciation information.

 

 


3.7.8        ‘TextToSpeechSSML’ Class Description

The PIM for the TextToSpeechSSML class is shown in Figure 3.9.

Table 3.115 The ‘TextToSpeechSSML’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

TextToSpeechSSML

Class type

Container (Sequence, Mixed)

Parents

Spoken

Children

The set of elements that can be used at the top level from the SSML Recommendation from the W3C [SSML, 2011].

Description

This is the container for the interleaved string and the associated SSML that is to be applied to the string.

Note that the form of binding must ensure that there are no name clashes between the set of objects from the SSML and the host APIP/QTI objects.

 

 

 


3.7.9        ‘BrailleText’ Class Description

The PIM for the BrailleText class is shown in Figure 3.10.

BrailleText class.

Figure 3.10 BrailleText class.

Table 3.116 The ‘BrailleText’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

BrailleText

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

RelatedElementInfo

Children

[ brailleTextString ]

Description

The container for the alternative accessibility content that is to be rendered using Braille text formats. Output to a refreshable Braille display presents the test taker with a Braille representation of text-based content. Braille display requires the item writer to define elements to which a Braille representation is assigned.

 

3.7.9.1  ‘BrailleTextString’ Attribute Description

Table 3.117 The ‘brailleTextString’ attribute for the BrailleText class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

brailleTextString

Data type

LabelledString

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

The text string that is to be rendered in Braille.  Each text block is also assigned a tab order in the non-visual inclusion order. The Braille display launches automatically when the test taker first encounters an item and transfers the Braille representation for the first element to the refreshable Braille display. The test taker may tab/navigate through the content and have the associated Braille representations transferred to the refreshable Braille display.

 

 


3.7.10    ‘TactileFile’ Class Description

The PIM for the TactileFile class is shown in Figure 3.11.

TactileFile class.

Figure 3.11 TactileFile class.


Table 3.118 The ‘TactileFile’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

TactileFile

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

RelatedElememtInfo

Children

[ tactileAudioFile, tactileAudioText, tactileBrailleText ], ordered

Description

The container for the alternative accessibility content to be rendered using tactile formats.  For some graphic content, a tactile representation provides better access for some students than does an audio or Braille description. When a hard copy tactile representation is employed to provide access to graphic content, the ‘tactileFile’ description indicates to the test delivery system that a tactile representation is available. To alert the test taker that a tactile representation is available, the test delivery system will present an audio cue that refers to the associated hard copy tactile representation.

 

 

3.7.10.1   ‘TactileAudioFile’ Attribute Description

Table 3.119 The ‘tactileAudioFile’ attribute for the TactileFile class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

tactileAudioFile

Data type

AudioFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The pointer to the audio file that is associated with the tactile description. Depending on the student access profile, the test delivery system may also provide a description of the tactile representation in audio form.

 

 

3.7.10.2   ‘TactileAudioText’ Attribute Description

Table 3.120 The ‘tactileAudioText’ attribute for the TactileFile class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

tactileAudioText

Data type

LabelledString

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is a text string description equivalent of the information that is to be presented in the tactile file.  This can be rendered using a text-to-speech tool.

 

 

3.7.10.3    ‘TactileBrailleText’ Attribute Description

Table 3.121 The ‘tactileBrailleText’ attribute for the TactileFile class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

tactileBrailleText

Data type

LabelledString

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is a Braille text string description equivalent of the information that is to be presented in the tactile file.  This can be rendered using a Braille display.

 

 


3.7.11    ‘Signing’ Class Description

The PIM for the Signing class is shown in Figure 3.12.

Signing class.

Figure 3.12 Signing class.


Table 3.122 The ‘Signing’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

Signing

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

RelatedElementInfo

Children

[ signFileASL, signFileSignedEnglish ], ordered

Description

The container for the alternative accessibility content to be rendered using sign language formats.  For students who communicate in sign, access to item content may require the content to be presented in either American Sign Language or in another signed English representation. A signed presentation may be assigned to any accessibility element.

 

 

3.7.11.1   ‘SignFileASL’ Attribute Description

Table 3.123 The ‘signFileASL’ attribute for the Signing class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

signFileASL

Data type

SignFileASL

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

For the information about the ASL based signing.

 

 


3.7.11.2   ‘SignFileSignedEnglish’ Attribute Description

Table 3.124 The ‘signFileSignedEnglish’ attribute for the Signing class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

signFileSignedEnglish

Data type

SignFileSignedEnglish

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

For the information about the Signed English based signing.

 

 

3.7.12    ‘SignFile’ Class Description

The PIM for the SignFile class is shown in Figure 3.12.

Table 3.125 The ‘SignFile’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

SignFile

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

Signing

Children

[ videoFileInfo, boneAnimationVideoFile ], ordered

Description

The container for the alternative accessibility content to be rendered using sign language formats.  The signing can be supplied as video and bone animation files.

 

 


3.7.12.1   ‘VideoFileInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.126 The ‘videoFileInfo’ attribute for the SignFile class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

videoFileInfo

Data type

VideoFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the pointer to the video file that contains the associate signing. A separate video file or a portion of a video file may be assigned to each accessibility element.

 

 

3.7.12.2   ‘BoneAnimationVideoFileInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.127 The ‘boneAnimationVideoFileInfo’ attribute for the SignFile class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

boneAnimationVideoFileInfo

Data type

ObectFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the pointer to the bone animation video file that contains the associate signing. Bone animation scripts allow a bone animation player to present an animated representation of signed presentation of the accessibility element. Bone animation players render video images using an avatar. Alternatively, a pre-recorded video file may be used to present a signed representation of the accessibility

 

 


3.7.13    ‘KeyWordTranslation’ Class Description

The PIM for the KeyWordTranslation class is shown in Figure 3.13.

KeyWordTranslation class.

Figure 3.13 KeyWordTranslation class.


Table 3.128 The ‘KeyWordTranslation’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

KeyWordTranslation

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

RelatedElementInfo

Children

[ definitionId ], unordered

Description

The container for the alternative accessibility content to be rendered using keyword translation formats.  A test taker for whom the default language used to represent item content is different than the test taker’s native language may require specific key words to be translated to another language.  This attribute indicates that a translated representation of the associated accessibility element should be provided to test takers whose Examine Accessibility Information profile specifies key word translation.

 

 

3.7.13.1   ‘DefinitionId’ Attribute Description

Table 3.129 The ‘definitionId’ attribute for the KeyWordTranslation class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

definitionId

Data type

DefinitionId

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1..unbounded]

Description

When a key word translation is accessed by the test taker, the ‘definitionId’ is used to determine the proper definition of the key word that is to be translated. The ‘definitionId’ is then used to locate the associated translation of the word and to present that translation in text-based form.

 

 

3.7.14    ‘DefinitionId’ Class Description

The PIM for the DefinitionId class is shown in Figure 3.13.

Table 3.130 The ‘DefinitionId’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

DefinitionId

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

KeyWordTranslation

Children

[ language, textString ], ordered

Description

The container for the information to be used to achieve keyword translation.

 

 

3.7.14.1   ‘Language’ Attribute Description

Table 3.131 The ‘language’ attribute for the DefinitionId class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

language

Data type

Language

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the language for the keyword translation.

 

 


3.7.14.2   ‘TextString’ Attribute Description

Table 3.132 The ‘textString’ attribute for the DefinitionId class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textString

Data type

LabelledString

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

The translated text string for the keyword.

 

 


3.7.15    ‘RevealAlternativeRepresentation’ Class Description

The PIM for the RevealAlternativeRepresentation class is shown in Figure 3.14.

RevealAlternativeRepresentation class.

Figure 3.14 RevealAlternativeRepresentation class.


Table 3.133 The ‘RevealAlternativeRepresentation’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

RevealAlternativeRepresentation

Class type

Container (Selection)

Parents

[ RelatedElementInfo ]

Children

[ audioFileInfo, videoFileInfo, graphicFileInfo, textFileInfo, textString, markupFileInfo, markupFileEmbedded, executableFileInfo, extensions ], selected

Description

The container for the alternative accessibility content to be rendered using various alternative formats.  It allows a student to access to an alternate representation for a specific object contained in an item. As a few examples, a bar chart may be substituted for a table presenting frequency counts, an animation may be substituted for a figure depicting a life cycle, or narrative text may be substituted for information presented in figure or chart. In all cases, this provides to the test delivery system the filename that contains an alternate representation for a given object that is then displayed as supplemental information for the test taker.  The alternate representation is displayed on-demand by the student.

 

 

3.7.15.1   ‘AudioFileInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.134 The ‘audioFileInfo’ attribute for the RevealAlternativeRepresentation class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

audioFileInfo

Data type

AudioFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The pointer to the audio file that can be used as the rendering of the alternative representation.

 

3.7.15.2    ‘VideoFileInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.135 The ‘videoFileInfo’ attribute for the RevealAlternativeRepresentation class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

videoFileInfo

Data type

VideoFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The pointer to the video file that can be used as the rendering of the alternative representation.

 

 

3.7.15.3   ‘GraphicFileInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.136 The ‘graphicFileInfo’ attribute for the RevealAlternativeRepresentation class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

graphicFileInfo

Data type

ObjectFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The pointer to the image file that can be used as the rendering of the alternative representation.

 

 


3.7.15.4   ‘textFileInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.137 The ‘textFileInfo’ attribute for the RevealAlternativeRepresentation class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textFileInfo

Data type

ObjectFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The pointer to the text file that can be used as the rendering of the alternative representation.

 

 

3.7.15.5   ‘textString’ Attribute Description

Table 3.138 The ‘textString’ attribute for the RevealAlternativeRepresentation class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textString

Data type

LabelledString

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

0..1

Description

The pointer to the text string that can be used as the rendering of the alternative representation.

 

 


3.7.15.6   ‘MarkupFileInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.139 The ‘markupFileInfo’ attribute for the RevealAlternativeRepresentation class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

markupFileInfo

Data type

ObjectFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The pointer to the external mark-up file that can be used as the rendering of the alternative representation. The form of mark-up is undefined i.e. it could be HTML, XML, etc.

 

 

3.7.15.7   ‘MarkupFileEmbedded’ Attribute Description

Table 3.140 The ‘MarkupFileEmbedded’ attribute for the RevealAlternativeRepresentation class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

markupFileEmbedded

Data type

MarkupFileEmbedded

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the pointer to the mark-up information that is embedded within the QTI instance file (this is expected to take the form of an XML namespace extension).

 

 


3.7.15.8   ‘ExecutableFileInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.141 The ‘executableFileInfo’ attribute for the RevealAlternativeRepresentation class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

executableFileInfo

Data type

ObjectFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The pointer to the external flash file that can be used as the rendering of the alternative representation.

 

 

3.7.15.9    ‘Extension’ Attribute Description

Table 3.142 The ‘extension’ attribute for the RevealAlternativeRepresentation class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

extension

Data type

Unspecified

Value space

Defined in terms of how the Information Model is realised by a binding.

Multiplicity

[0..unbounded], unordered

Description

This is a placeholder. It informs bindings of this Information Model as to the valid locations that extend the parent class.  The form of the extension is dependent on the binding.

 

 


3.7.16    ‘MarkupFileEmbedded’ Class Description

The PIM for the MarkupFileEmbedded class is shown in Figure 3.14.

Table 3.143 The ‘MarkupFileEmbedded’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

MarkupFileEmbedded

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

RevealAlternativeRepresentation

Children

[ extensions ], ordered

Description

This is a placeholder for any embedded mark-up language e.g. HTML, etc. It informs bindings of this Information Model as to the valid locations that extend the parent class.

 

 

3.7.16.1   ‘Extensions’ Attribute Description

Table 3.144 The ‘extension’ attribute for the MarkupFileEmbedded class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

extensions

Data type

Unspecified

Value space

Defined in terms of how the Information Model is realised by a binding.

Multiplicity

[0..unbounded], unordered

Description

This is a placeholder. It informs bindings of this Information Model as to the valid locations that extend the parent class.  The form of the extension is dependent on the binding.

 

 


3.7.17    ‘Guidance’ Class Description

The PIM for the Guidance class is shown in Figure 3.15.

Guidance class.

Figure 3.15 Guidance class.


Table 3.145 The ‘Guidance’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

Guidance

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

RelatedElementInfo

Children

[ langageLearnerSupport, cognitiveGuidanceSupport ], ordered

Description

This is the container for the instructions on how to render information that is subjected to guidance.  This is used for students who require assistance identifying the key components of an item; guidance presents additional information or cues to the test taker.

 

 

3.7.17.1   ‘LangageLearnerSupport’ Attribute Description

Table 3.146 The ‘langageLearnerSupport’ attribute for the Guidance class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

langageLearnerSupport

Data type

GuidanceSupport

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

Defines the nature of the guidance available for language learners.

 

 


3.7.17.2   ‘CognitiveGuidanceSupport’ Attribute Description

Table 3.147 The ‘cognitveGuidanceSupport’ attribute for the Guidance class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

cognitveGuidanceSupport

Data type

GuidanceSupport

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

Defines the nature of the cognitive guidance available.

 

 

3.7.18     ‘GuidanceSupport’ Class Description

The PIM for the GuidanceSupport class is shown in Figure 3.15.

Table 3.148 The ‘GuidanceSupport’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

GuidanceSupport

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

RelatedElementInfo

Children

[ supportOrder, textString ], ordered

Description

Guidance is applied to item content and specifies to the test delivery system both the additional information that is to be displayed for the test taker and the content with which the guidance is associated. When the item is presented on screen, the test delivery system may automatically display guidance associated with the item or may display guidance on-demand, depending on the specifications provided in the student access profile.

 

 

3.7.18.1   ‘SupportOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.149 The ‘supportOrder’ attribute for the GuidanceSupport class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

supportOrder

Data type

Integer

Value space

1 ≤ supportOrder ≤ 2047

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

Defines the order for the associated guidance presentation.

 

 

3.7.18.2   ‘TextString’ Attribute Description

Table 3.150 The ‘textString’ attribute for the GuidanceSupport class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textString

Data type

LabelledString

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the pointer to the text string that is available as a note associated with the guidance.

 

 


3.7.19    ‘StructuredMask’ Class Description

The PIM for the StructuredMask class is shown in Figure 3.16.

StructuredMask class.

Figure 3.16 StructuredMask class.


Table 3.151 The ‘StructuredMask’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

StructuredMask

Class type

Container (Selection)

Parents

RelatedElementInfo

Children

[ revealOrder, answerOption ], selected

Description

This is the container for the information about how a structured mask is to be applied to the content to be rendered.  For students who require assistance maintaining focus, masking may be used to display smaller blocks of information. Structured masking is used to assist the student in developing an understanding of an item by masking specific elements of the item and revealing them in a prescribed order. A separate structured mask tag is applied to each item content structure and the order of revelation for each piece of content is specified for each mask.

 

 

3.7.19.1    ‘RevealOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.152 The ‘revealOrder’ attribute for the StructuredMask class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

revealOrder

Data type

Integer

Value space

1 ≤ revealOrder ≤ 2047

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The order of revelation for the associated masked object.

 

 

3.7.19.2   ‘AnswerOption’ Attribute Description

Table 3.153 The ‘answerOption’ attribute for the StructuredMask class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

answerOption

Data type

Boolean

Value space

Enumerated: { true | false }.  Default = true.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

Defines whether or not the answer option is to be masked. Answer options are included in structured mask by default, and should be ordered last.  The value ‘true’ denotes that the answer options should be masked.

 

 


3.7.20    ‘Scaffold’ Class Description

The PIM for the Scaffold class is shown in Figure 3.17.

Scaffold class.

Figure 3.17 Scaffold class.


Table 3.154 The ‘Scaffold’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

Scaffold

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

RelatedElementInfo

Children

[ revealOrder, scaffoldBehavior ], ordered

Description

This is the container for the information that can have scaffolding used to support its rendering.  For students who require a high level of support processing information presented in an item and who may require assistance maintaining focus, scaffolding is designed to walk a student through an item element by element with additional support provided. Scaffolding combines elements of flagging and masking. Like structured masking, scaffolding applies a mask to specific item content and specifies the order in which a mask is to be revealed. Like flagging, scaffolding associates additional information with item content.

 

 

3.7.20.1   ‘RevealOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.155 The ‘revealOrder’ attribute for the Scaffold class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

revealOrder

Data type

Integer

Value space

1 ≤ revealOrder ≤ 2047

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

The order of revelation.

 

 


3.7.20.2   ‘ScaffoldBehavior’ Attribute Description

Table 3.156 The ‘scaffoldBehavior’ attribute for the Scaffold class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

scaffoldBehavior

Data type

ScaffoldBehavior

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the pointer to the information that describes the behavior of the scaffolding to be used to support the rendering of the alternative content.

 

 

3.7.21    ‘ScaffoldBehavior’ Class Description

The PIM for the ScaffoldBehavior class is shown in Figure 3.17.

Table 3.157 The ‘ScaffoldBehavior’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

ScaffoldBehavior

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

Scaffold

Children

[ audioFileInfo, textString, spokenText ], ordered

Description

The container for the scaffolding behavior.

 

 


3.7.21.1   ‘AudioFileInfo’ Attribute Description

Table 3.158 The ‘audioFileInfo’ attribute for the ScaffoldBehavior class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

audioFileInfo

Data type

AudioFileInfo

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The pointer for the audio file that can be played as part of the scaffolding activity.

 

 

3.7.21.2   ‘TextString’ Attribute Description

Table 3.159 The ‘textString’ attribute for the ScaffoldBehavior class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

textString

Data type

LabelledString

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

The text string that can be played as part of the scaffolding activity.

 

 


3.7.21.3   ‘SpokenText’ Attribute Description

Table 3.160 The ‘spokenText’ attribute for the ScaffoldBehavior class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

spokenText

Data type

LabelledString

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the text that is to be presented in audio format by a text-to-speech tool.

 

 


3.7.22    ‘AnswerReduction’ Class Description

The PIM for the AnswerReduction class is shown in Figure 3.18.

AnswerReduction class.

Figure 3.18 AnswerReduction class.


Table 3.161 The ‘AnswerReduction’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

AnswerReduction

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

RelatedElementInfo

Children

[ removeTagGroup ], unordered

Description

This is the container for the instructions on how to perform answer reduction.  This reduces the number of answer options displayed for a forced choice item. Often, the answer option that is removed is the least discriminating option. When the Examine Accessibility Information profile specifies reduced answer options, the test delivery system will remove any answer option to which the remove option tag is applied.  Only those options to which the remove option tag has NOT been applied will be displayed to the student

 

 

3.7.22.1   ‘RemoveTagGroup’ Attribute Description

Table 3.162 The ‘removeTagGroup’ attribute for the AnswerReduction class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

removeTagGroup

Data type

RemoveTagGroup

Value space

Container

Multiplicity

[1..unbounded], unordered

Description

The set of information about the group of remove tag instructions for the answer reduction activity.

 

 


3.7.23    ‘RemoveTagGroup’ Class Description

The PIM for the RemoveTagGroup class is shown in Figure 3.18.

Table 3.163 The ‘RemoveTagGroup’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

RemoveTagGroup

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

AnswerReduction

Children

[ removeTagGroupOrder, removeTagIdRef ], ordered

Description

This is the container for a remove tag group.

 

 

3.7.23.1   ‘RemoveTagGroupOrder’ Attribute Description

Table 3.164 The ‘removeTagGroupOrder’ attribute for the RemoveTagGroup class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

removeTagGroupOrder

Data type

Integer

Value space

1 ≤ removeTagGroup ≤ 2047

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

The order in which the removal should be applied.

 

 


3.7.23.2   ‘RemoveTagIdRef’ Attribute Description

Table 3.165 The ‘removeTagIdRef’ attribute for the RemoveTagGroup class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

removeTagIdRef

Data type

NormalizedString

Value space

Normalized string.
Length [1-4095] characters.

Multiplicity

[1..unbounded]

Description

The set of identifiers that are used to identify the objects to be removed.

 

 

3.7.24    ‘LabelledString’ Class Description

The PIM for the LabelledString class is shown in Figure 3.19.

LabelledString class.

Figure 3.19 LabelledString class.

Table 3.166 The ‘LabelledString’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

LabelledString

Class type

String

Parents

Various

Children

[ contentLinkIdentifier ]

Description

This is the container for a labelled string.  This is a string that has an allocated content link identifier i.e. it can also have alternative accessibility content instructions assigned to it.

 

 

3.7.24.1   ‘ContentLinkIdentifier’ Attribute Description

Table 3.167 The ‘contentLinkIdentifier’ attribute for the LabelledString class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

contentLinkIdentifier

Data type

LUID

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the locally unique identifier for the associated string.  This is the identifier to be referenced by other alternative accessibility content structures.

 

 


3.7.25    ‘AudioFileInfo’ Class Description

The PIM for the AudioFileInfo class is shown in Figure 3.20.

AudioFileInfo class.

Figure 3.20 AudioFileInfo class.


Table 3.168 The ‘AudioFileInfo’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

AudioFileInfo

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

Various

Children

[ contentLinkIdentifier, mimeType, voiceType, voiceSpeed, fileHref, startTime, duration ], ordered

Description

This is the container for the formation about an audio file.

 

 

3.7.25.1   ‘ContentLinkIdentifier’ Attribute Description

Table 3.169 The ‘contentLinkIdentifier’ attribute for the AudioFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

contentLinkIdentifier

Data type

LUID

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the locally unique identifier for the associated audio file.  This is the identifier to be referenced by other alternative accessibility content structures.

 

 


3.7.25.2   ‘MimeType’ Attribute Description

Table 3.170 The ‘mimeType’ attribute for the AudioFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

mimeType

Data type

NormalizedString

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the mime-type of the associated audio file.

 

 

3.7.25.3   ‘FileHref’ Attribute Description

Table 3.171 The ‘fileHref’ attribute for the AudioFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

fileHref

Data type

FileHref

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the link to the file itself.  The form of the link depends upon the actual binding realisation.

 

 


3.7.25.4   ‘VoiceType’ Attribute Description

Table 3.172 The ‘voiceType’ attribute for the AudioFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

voiceType

Data type

Enumerated

Value space

Enumeration of: { Human | Synthetic }.  Default=Synthetic.

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is used to define the type of voice to be used to support the audioFile.

 

 

3.7.25.5   ‘VoiceSpeed’ Attribute Description

Table 3.173 The ‘voiceSpeed’ attribute for the AudioFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

voiceSpeed

Data type

Enumerated

Value space

Enumeration of: { Slow | Standard | Fast }.  Default=Standard.

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is used to define the speed of speech for the voice to be used to support the audioFile.

 

 


3.7.25.6   ‘StartTime’ Attribute Description

Table 3.174 The ‘startTime’ attribute for the AudioFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

startTime

Data type

Time

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the start point in the audio file that is to be used for the associated rendering (this allows a single audio file to be reused).  If absent the start time is at the start of the file.

 

 

3.7.25.7   ‘Duration’ Attribute Description

Table 3.175 The ‘duration’ attribute for the AudioFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

duration

Data type

Time

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the duration of the audio clip that is to be presented.  If absent the duration is the full length of the audio clip contained in the file.

 

 

 


3.7.26    ‘VideoFileInfo’ Class Description

The PIM for the VideoFileInfo class is shown in Figure 3.21.

VideoFileInfo class.

Figure 3.21 VideoFileInfo class.

Table 3.176 The ‘VideoFileInfo’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

VideoFileName

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

Various

Children

[ contentLinkIdentifier, mimeType, fileHref, startCue, stopCue ], ordered

Description

This is the container for the formation about a video file.

 

3.7.26.1   ‘ContentLinkIdentifier’ Attribute Description

Table 3.177 The ‘contentLinkIdentifier’ attribute for the VideoFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

contentLinkIdentifier

Data type

LUID

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the locally unique identifier for the associated video file.  This is the identifier to be referenced by other alternative accessibility content structures.

 

 

3.7.26.2   ‘MimeType’ Attribute Description

Table 3.178 The ‘mimeType’ attribute for the VideoFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

mimeType

Data type

NormalizedString

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the mime-type of the associated video file.

 

 

 


3.7.26.3   ‘FileHref’ Attribute Description

Table 3.179 The ‘fileHref’ attribute for the VideoFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

fileHref

Data type

FileHref

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the link to the file itself.  The form of the link depends upon the actual binding realisation.

 

 

3.7.26.4   ‘StartCue’ Attribute Description

Table 3.180 The ‘startCue’ attribute for the VideoFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

startCue

Data type

Time

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the start point in the video file that is to be used for the associated rendering (this allows a single video file to be reused).  If absent the start time is at the start of the file.

 

 


3.7.26.5   ‘EndCue’ Attribute Description

Table 3.181 The ‘endCue’ attribute for the VideoFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

endCue

Data type

Time

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the end point in the video file that is to be used for the associated rendering (this allows a single video file to be reused).  If absent the end time is at the end of the file.

 

 


3.7.27    ‘ObjectFileInfo’ Class Description

The PIM for the ObjectFileInfo class is shown in Figure 3.22.

ObjectFileInfo class.

Figure 3.22 ObjectFileInfo class.

Table 3.182 The ‘ObjectFileInfo’ class.

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

ObjectFleInfo

Class type

Container (Sequence)

Parents

Various

Children

[ contentLinkIdentifier, mimeType, fileHref ], ordered

Description

This is the container for the formation about the object file.

 

 


3.7.27.1   ‘ContentLinkIdentifier’ Attribute Description

Table 3.183 The ‘contentLinkIdentifier’ attribute for the ObjectFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

contentLinkIdentifier

Data type

LUID

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the locally unique identifier for the associated object file.  This is the identifier to be referenced by other alternative accessibility content structures.

 

 

3.7.27.2   ‘MimeType’ Attribute Description

Table 3.184 The ‘mimeType’ attribute for the ObjectFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

mimeType

Data type

NormalizedString

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[0..1]

Description

This is the mime-type of the associated object file.

 

 


3.7.27.3   ‘FileHref’ Attribute Description

Table 3.185 The ‘fileHref’ attribute for the ObjectFileInfo class.

Descriptor

Definition

Attribute name

fileHref

Data type

FileHref

Value space

See Appendix A.

Multiplicity

[1]

Description

This is the link to the file itself.  The form of the link depends upon the actual binding realisation.

 

 

 

 

4                  QTI Extension Binding Description

4.1           Platform Specific Model Representation

The Platform Specific Models (PSMs) for the APIP QTI extensions are shown in Figures:

4.1       APIP Accessibility Root;

4.2       APIP Companion materials information;

4.3       APIP External supplemental accessibility

4.4       APIP Inclusion order;

4.5       APIP Accessibility information;

4.6       APIP Content link information;

4.7       APIP Audio-based accessibility information;

4.8       APIP Non-audio-based accessibility information.

APIP accessibility root PSM.

Figure 4.1 APIP accessibility root PSM.

APIP Companion materials information PSM.

Figure 4.2 APIP Companion materials information PSM.

APIP External supplemental accessibility information PSM.

Figure 4.3 APIP External supplemental accessibility information PSM.

APIP inclusion order PSM.

Figure 4.4 APIP inclusion order PSM.

APIP accessibility information PSM.

Figure 4.5 APIP accessibility information PSM.

APIP content link information PSM.

Figure 4.6 APIP content link information PSM.

APIP audio-based accessibility information PSM.

Figure 4.7 APIP audio-based accessibility information PSM.

APIP non-audio-based accessibility information PSM.

Figure 4.8 APIP non-audio-based accessibility information PSM.


4.2           Information Model to PMS to XSD Mappings

For the APIP QTI Extensions the mapping between the PIM (Information Model in Section 3) and PSM binding representation (Section 4.1) is detailed in Table 4.1.  The key to Table 4.1 is:

·         The ‘PSM Reference’ field refers to information in the PSM description (Section 4.1 in this document). The sub-fields are:

—   Name – the name of the data structure in the PSM and PIM

—   UML Type – the type of UML construct i.e. either Class or Attribute

—   Figure – the reference Figure number in this document;

·         The ‘PIM Reference’ field refers to the Information Model (Section 3).  The sub-fields are:

—   Type – the type of the data structure in the Information Model

—   Table – the reference number of Tabular description in the corresponding Information Model document;

·         The 'XSD Reference' field refers to information in the XSD descriptions  (Section 4.1 in this document). The sub-fields are:

—   Name – the name of the field in the XSD(s)

—   Type – the type of XSD construct i.e. either a ComplexType or Element.  In the case of a ComplexType there are two sub-divisions of sequence, ComplexType (S), choice, ComplexType (C) and unordered, ComplexType (U).


Table 4.1 Mapping between the PIM (Information Model), PSM (Binding) and XSD descriptions for the APIP QTI Extensions.

PSM (Binding) Reference

PIM (Information) Reference

XSD Reference

Name

UML Type

Figure

Type

Table

Name

Type

AssessmentItem

Class

See [APIP, 14b]

RubricBlock

Class

See [APIP, 14b]

FeedbackBlock

Class

See [APIP, 14b]

TemplateBlock

Class

See [APIP, 14b]

·         apipAccessibility

Attribute

4.1

APIPAccessibility

3.2

apipAccessibility

Element

APIPAccessibility

Class

4.1

3.3

APIPAccessibility.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         companionMaterialsInfo

Attribute

4.1

CompanionMaterialsInfo

3.4

companionMaterialsInfo

Element

·         externalSupplemental
Accessibility

Attribute

4.1

ExternalSupplemental
Accessibility

3.5

externalSupplementalAccessibility

Element

·         inclusionOrder

Attribute

4.1

InclusionOrder

3.6

inclusionOrder

Element

·         accessibilityInfo

Attribute

4.1

AccessibilityInfo

3.7

accessibilityInfo

Element

·         extensions

Attribute

4.1

Unspecified

3.8

Namespace Extension Group

Namespace

CompanionMaterialsInfo

Class

4.2

3.9

CompanionMaterialsInfo.Type

ComplexType (U)

·         calculator

Attribute

4.2

Calculator

3.10

calculator

Element

·         rule

Attribute

4.2

Rule

3.11

rule

Element

·         protractor

Attribute

4.2

Protractor

3.12

protractor

Element

·         digitalMaterial

Attribute

4.2

ItemFileInfo

3.13

digitalMaterial

Element

·         physicalMaterial

Attribute

4.2

NormalizedString

3.14

physicalMaterial

Element

·         readingPassage

Attribute

4.2

ItemFileInfo

3.15

readingPassage

Element

·         extensions

Attribute

4.1

Unspecified

3.16

Namespace Extension Group

Namespace

Calculator

Class

4.2

3.17

Calculator.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         calculatorType

Attribute

4.2

Enumerated

3.18

calculatorType

Element

·         description

Attribute

4.2

NormalizedString

3.19

description

Element

·         calculatorInfo

Attribute

4.2

ItemFileInfo

3.20

calculatorInfo

Element

Rule

Class

4.2

3.23

Rule.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         description

Attribute

4.2

NormalizedString

3.24

description

Element

·         ruleSystemSI

Attribute

4.2

SIRuleSystem

3.25

ruleSystemSI

Element

·         ruleSystemUS

Attribute

4.2

USRuleSystem

3.26

ruleSyetmUS

Element

SIRuleSystem

Class

4.2

3.27

SIRuleSystem.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         minimumLength

Attribute

4.2

Integer

3.28

length

Element

·         minorIncrement

Attribute

4.2

SILinearValue

3.29

minorIncrement

Element

·         majorIncrement

Attribute

4.2

SILinearValue

3.30

majorIncrement

Element

SILinearValue

Class

4.2

Decimal

3.31

SILinearValue.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         unit

Attribute

4.2

Enumerated

3.32

unit

Attribute

USRuleSystem

Class

4.2

3.33

USRuleSystem.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         minimumLength

Attribute

4.2

Integer

3.34

length

Element

·         minorIncrement

Attribute

4.2

USLinearValue

3.35

minorIncrement

Element

·         majorIncrement

Attribute

4.2

USLinearValue

3.36

majorIncrement

Element

USLinearValue

Class

4.2

Decimal

3.37

USLinearValue.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         unit

Attribute

4.2

Enumerated

3.38

unit

Attribute

Protractor

Class

4.2

3.39

Protractor.Type

ComplexType

·         description

Attribute

4.2

NormalizedString

3.40

description

Element

·         incrementSI

Attribute

4.2

IncrementSI

3.41

incrementSI

Element

·         incrementUS

Attribute

4.2

IncrementUS

3.42

incrementUS

Element

IncrementUS

Class

4.2

3.43

Protractor.Type

ComplexType

·         minorIncrement

Attribute

4.2

RadialUSValue

3.44

minorIncrement

Element

·         majorIncrement

Attribute

4.2

RadialUSValue

3.45

majorIncrement

Element

RadialUSValue

Class

4.2

Decimal

3.46

RadialUSValue.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         unit

Attribute

4.2

Enumerated

3.47

unit

Attribute

IncrementSI

Class

4.2

3.48

Protractor.Type

ComplexType

·         minorIncrement

Attribute

4.2

RadialSIValue

3.49

minorIncrement

Element

·         majorIncrement

Attribute

4.2

RadialSIValue

3.50

majorIncrement

Element

RadialSIValue

Class

4.2

Decimal

3.51

RadialUSValue.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         unit

Attribute

4.2

Enumerated

3.52

unit

Attribute

ItemFileInfo

Class

4.2

3.21

ItemFileInfo.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         fileHref

Attribute

4.2

FileHref

3.22

fileHref

Element

ExternalSupplementalAccessibility

Class

4.3

3.53

ExternalSupplemental
Accessibility.Type

ComplexType (U)

·         textToSpeechLexicon

Attribute

4.3

TextToSpeechLexicon

3.54

textToSpeechLexicon

Element

·         textToSpeechStylesheet

Attribute

4.3

TextToSpeechStylesheet

3.55

textToSpeechStylesheet

Element

·         extensions

Attribute

4.3

Unspecified

3.56

Namespace Extension Group

Namespace

TextToSpeechSupplement

Class

4.3

3.57

TextToSpeechSupplement.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         source

Attribute

4.3

URI

3.58

source

Attribute

InclusionOrder

Class

4.4

3.59

InclusionOrder.Type

ComplexType (U)

·         brailleDefaultOrder

Attribute

4.4

ElementOrderList

3.60

textOnlyDefaultOrder

Element

·         textOnlyDefaultOrder

Attribute

4.4

ElementOrderList

3.61

textOnlyDefaultOrder

Element

·         textOnlyOnDemandOrder

Attribute

4.4

ElementOrderList

3.62

textOnlyOnDemandOrder

Element

·         textGraphicsDefaultOrder

Attribute

4.4

ElementOrderList

3.63

textGraphicsDefaultOrder

Element

·         textGraphicsOnDemandOrder

Attribute

4.4

ElementOrderList

3.64

textGraphicsOnDemandOrder

Element

·         graphicsOnlyOnDemandOrder

Attribute

4.4

ElementOrderList

3.65

graphicsOnlyOnDemandOrder

Element

·         nonVisualDefaultOrder

Attribute

4.4

ElementOrderList

3.66

nonVisualDefaultOrder

Element

·         aslDefaultOrder

Attribute

4.4

ElementOrderList

3.67

aslDefaultOrder

Element

·         aslOnDemandOrder

Attribute

4.4

ElementOrderList

3.68

aslOnDemandOrder

Element

·         signedEnglishDefaultOrder

Attribute

4.4

ElementOrderList

3.69

signedEnglishDefaultOrder

Element

·         signedEnglishOnDemandOrder

Attribute

4.4

ElementOrderList

3.70

signedEnglishOnDemandOrder

Element

·         extensions

Attribute

4.4

Unspecified

3.71

Namespace Extension Group

Namespace

ElementOrderList

Class

4.4

3.72

ElementOrderList.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         elementOrder

Attribute

4.4

ElementOrder

3.73

elementOrder

Element

ElementOrder

Class

4.4

3.74

ElementOrder.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         identifierRef

Attribute

4.4

LUIDRef

3.75

identifierRef

Attribute

·         order

Attribute

4.4

Integer

3.76

order

Element

AccessibilityInfo

Class

4.5

3.77

AccessibilityInfo.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         accessElement

Attribute

4.5

AccessElement

3.78

accessElement

Element

AccessElement

Class

4.5

3.79

AccessElement.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         identifier

Attribute

4.5

LUID

3.80

identifier

Attribute

·         contentLinkInfo

Attribute

4.5

ContentLinkInfo

3.81

contentLinkInfo

Element

·         relatedElementInfo

Attribute

4.5

RelatedElementInfo

3.82

relatedElementInfo

Element

ContentLinkInfo

Class

4.6

3.83

ContentLinkInfo.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         apipLinkIdentifierRef

Attribute

4.6

LUIDRef

3.84

apipLinkIdentifierRef

Element

·         qtiLinkIdentifierRef

Attribute

4.6

NormalizedString

3.85

qtiLinkIdentifierRef

Element

·         textLink

Attribute

4.6

TextLink

3.86

textLink

Element

·         objectLink

Attribute

4.6

Empty

3.87

objectLink

Element

TextLink

Class

4.6

3.88

Textlink.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         fullString

Attribute

4.6

Empty

3.89

fullString

Element

·         wordLink

Attribute

4.6

Integer

3.90

wordLink

Element

·         characterLink

Attribute

4.6

Integer

3.91

characterLink

Element

·         CharacterStringLink

Attribute

4.6

CharacterStringLink

3.92

characterStringLink

Element

CharacterStringLink

Class

4.6

3.93

CharacterStringLink.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         startCharacter

Attribute

4.6

Integer

3.94

startCharacter

Element

·         stopCharacter

Attribute

4.6

Integer

3.95

stopCharacter

Element

RelatedElementInfo

Class

4.5

3.96

RelatedElement.Type

ComplexType (U)

·         spoken

Attribute

4.5

Spoken

3.97

spoken

Element

·         brailleText

Attribute

4.5

BrailleText

3.98

brailleText

Element

·         tactileFile

Attribute

4.5

TactileFile

3.99

tactileFile

Element

·         signing

Attribute

4.5

Signing

3.100

signing

Element

·         keyWordTranslation

Attribute

4.5

KeyWordTranslation

3.101

keyWordTranslation

Element

·         revealAlternativeRepresentation

Attribute

4.5

revealAlternativeRepresentation

3.102

revealAlternativeRepresentation

Element

·         guidance

Attribute

4.5

Guidance

3.103

guidance

Element

·         structuredMask

Attribute

4.5

StructuredMask

3.104

structuredMask

Element

·         scaffold

Attribute

4.5

Scaffold

3.105

scaffold

Element

·         chunk

Attribute

4.5

Chunk

3.106

chunk

Element

·         answerReduction

Attribute

4.5

AnswerReduction

3.107

answerReduction

Element

·         keyWordEmphasis

Attribute

4.5

KeyWordEmphasis

3.108

keyWordEmphasis

Element

·         extensions

Attribute

4.5

Unspecified

3.109

Namespace Extension Group

Namespace

Spoken

Class

4.7

3.110

Spoken.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         audioFileInfo

Attribute

4.7

AudioFileInfo

3.111

audioFileInfo

Element

·         spokenText

Attribute

4.7

LabelledString

3.112

spokenText

Element

·         textToSpeechPronunciation

Attribute

4.7

LabelledString

3.113

textToSpeechPronunciation

Element

·         textToSpeechPronunciationML

Attribute

4.7

TexToSpeechSSML

3.114

textToSpeechPronunciationSSML

Element

TextToSpeechSSML

Class

4.7

3.115

TextToSpeechSSML.Type

ComplexType (S/C/Mixed)

·         p

Attribute

4.7

See [SSML, 11]

·         s

Attribute

4.7

See [SSML, 11]

·         say-as

Attribute

4.7

See [SSML, 11]

·         phoneme

Attribute

4.7

See [SSML, 11]

·         sub

Attribute

4.7

See [SSML, 11]

·         voice

Attribute

4.7

See [SSML, 11]

·         emphasis

Attribute

4.7

See [SSML, 11]

·         break

Attribute

4.7

See [SSML, 11]

·         prosody

Attribute

4.7

See [SSML, 11]

·         mark

Attribute

4.7

See [SSML, 11]

·         audio

Attribute

4.7

See [SSML, 11]

BrailleText

Class

48

3.116

BrailleText.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         brailleTextString

Attribute

4.8

LabelledString

3.117

brailleTextString

Element

TactileFile

Class

4.7

3.118

TactileFile.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         tactileAudioFile

Attribute

4.7

AudioFileInfo

3.119

tactileAudioFile

Element

·         tactileAudioText

Attribute

4.7

LabelledString

3.120

tactileAudioText

Element

·         tactileBrailleText

Attribute

4.7

LabelledString

3.121

tactileBrailleText

Element

Signing

Class

4.8

3.122

Signing.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         signFileASL

Attribute

4.8

SignFile

3.123

signFileASL

Element

·         signFileSignedEnglish

Attribute

4.8

SignFile

3.124

signFileSignedEnglish

Element

SignFile

Class

4.8

3.125

SignFile.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         videoFileInfo

Attribute

4.8

VideoFileInfo

3.126

videoFileInfo

Element

·         boneAnimationVideoFile

Attribute

4.8

ObjectFileInfo

3.127

boneAnimationVideoFile

Element

KeyWordTranslation

Class

4.7

3.128

KeyWordTranslation.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         definitionId

Attribute

4.7

DefinitionId

3.129

definitionId

Element

DefinitionId

Class

4.7

3.130

DefinitionId.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         language

Attribute

4.7

Language

3.131

language

Attribute

·         textString

Attribute

4.7

LabelledString

3.132

textString

Element

RevealAlternativeRepresentation

Class

4.8

3.133

RevealAlternativeRepresentation.Type

ComplexType (C)

·         audioFileInfo

Attribute

4.8

AudioFileInfo

3.134

audioFileInfo

Element

·         videoFileInfo

Attribute

4.8

VideoFileInfo

3.135

videoFileInfo

Element

·         graphicFileInfo

Attribute

4.8

ObjectFileInfo

3.136

graphicFileInfo

Element

·         textFileInfo

Attribute

4.8

ObjectFileInfo

3.137

textFileInfo

Element

·         textString

Attribute

4.8

LabelledString

3.138

tetString

Element

·         markupFileInfo

Attribute

4.8

ObjectFileInfo

3.139

markupFileInfo

Element

·         markupFileEmbedded

Attribute

4.8

MarkupFileEmbedded

3.140

markupFileEmbedded

Element

·         flashFileInfo

Attribute

4.8

ObjectFileInfo

3.141

flashFileInfo

Element

·         extensions

Attribute

4.8

Unspecified

3.142

Namespace Extension Group

Namespace

MarkupFileEmbedded

Class

4.8

3.143

MarkupFileEmbedded.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         extensions

Attribute

4.8

Unspecified

3.144

Namespace Extension Group

Namespace

Guidance

Class

4.8

3.145

Guidance.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         languageLearnerSupport

Attribute

4.8

GuidanceSupport

3.146

languageLearnerSupport

Element

·         cognitiveGuidanceSupport

Attribute

4.8

GuidanceSupport

3.147

cognitiveGuidanceSupport

Element

GuidanceSupport

Class

4.8

3.148

Guidance.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         supportOrder

Attribute

4.8

Integer

3.149

supportOrder

Element

·         textString

Attribute

4.8

LabelledString

3.150

textString

Element

StructuredMask

Class

4.8

3.151

StructuredMask.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         revealOrder

Attribute

4.8

Integer

3.152

revealOrder

Element

·         answerOption

Attribute

4.8

Boolean

3.153

answerOption

Element

Scaffold

Class

4.7

3.154

Scaffold.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         revealOrder

Attribute

4.7

Integer

3.155

revealOrder

Element

·         scaffoldBehavior

Attribute

4.7

ScaffoldBehavior

3.156

scaffoldBehavior

Element

ScaffoldBehavior

Class

4.7

3.157

ScaffoldBehavior.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         audioFileInfo

Attribute

4.7

AudioFileInfo

3.158

audioFileInfo

Element

·         textString

Attribute

4.7

LabelledString

3.159

textString

Element

·         spokenText

Attribute

4.7

LabelledString

3.160

spokenText

Element

AnswerReduction

Class

4.8

3.161

AnswerReduction.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         removeTagGroup

Attribute

4.8

RemoveTagGroup

3.162

removeTagGroup

Element

RemoveTagGroup

Class

4.8

3.163

RemoveTagGroup.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         removeTagGroupOrder

Attribute

4.8

Integer

3.164

removeTagGroupOrder

Element

·         removeTagIdRef

Attribute

4.8

NormalizedString

3.165

removeTagIdRef

Element

LabelledString

Class

4.6

String

3.166

LabelledString.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         contentLinkIdentifier

Attribute

4.6

LUID

3.167

contentLinkIdentifier

Attribute

AudioFileInfo

Class

4.7

3.168

AudioFileInfo.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         contentLinkIdentifier

Attribute

4.7

LUID

3.169

contentLinkIdentifier

Attribute

·         mimeType

Attribute

4.7

NormalizedString

3.170

mimeType

Attribute

·         fileHref

Attribute

4.7

FileHref

3.171

fileHref

Element

·         voiceType

Attribute

4.7

Enumerated

3.172

voiceType

Element

·         voiceSpeed

Attribute

4.7

Enumerated

3.173

voiceSpeed

Element

·         startTime

Attribute

4.7

Time

3.174

startTime

Element

·         duration

Attribute

4.7

Time

3.175

duration

Element

VideoFileInfo

Class

4.8

3.176

VideoFileInfo.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         contentLinkIdentifier

Attribute

4.8

LUID

3.177

contentLinkIdentifier

Attribute

·         mimeType

Attribute

4.8

NormalizedString

3.178

mimeType

Attribute

·         fileHref

Attribute

4.8

FileHref

3.179

fileHref

Element

·         startCue

Attribute

4.8

Time

3.180

startCue

Element

·         endCue

Attribute

4.8

Time

3.181

endCue

Element

ObjectFileInfo

Class

4.8

3.182

ObjectFileInfo.Type

ComplexType (S)

·         contentLinkIdentifier

Attribute

4.8

LUID

3.183

contentLinkIdentifier

Attribute

·         mimeType

Attribute

4.8

NormalizedString

3.184

mimeType

Attribute

·         fileHref

Attribute

4.8

FileHref

3.185

fileHref

Element

 

4.3           XSD Listing

The XSD for the APIP QTI extensions information model is available in the file:

·         ‘apipv1p0_qtiextv2p1_v1p0.xsd’.

This XSD was created by using the I-BAT v0.9.5 on the PSM (shown in sub-section 4.1).

This XSD should be used in conjunction with the profiled version of the IMS QTI v2.1 specification available in the files:

·         ‘apipv1p0_qtiitemv2p1_v1p0.xsd’;

·         ‘apipv1p0_qtisectionv2p1_v1p0.xsd’.

The extensions are inserted into the profiled QTI using a name-spacing approach.

 

Appendix A The IMS UML Profile Notation

The APIP Information Models are expressed using the standard IMS representation in the Unified Modeling Language (UML).  Classes in this information model are classified into one of four types. These abstractions are bound to specific data structures for machine processing in the associated bindings.  The abstract class types are:

·         Unordered, Sequence, or Selection: A container class may be a parent of one or more child classes (the Parent/Child notation is used to indicate the nature of the relationship as distinct from inheritance i.e. this does not denote any form of inheritance).  The ‘Unordered’ container does not require the order of the contained attributes to be maintained, the ‘Sequence’ container denotes information whose order must be maintained and the ‘Selection’ container denotes a selection of the contained attributes;

·         Value: A value class shall not be a parent. That is, it shall not be a composite of container, value, or unspecified class types. A value class shall always be a child of a container class and shall have semantic value within the scope of its parent class’s semantic value;

·         PrimitiveType: This is a class that is used to denote a basic data-type for the specification;

·         Unspecified: An unspecified class may be a parent. An unspecified class serves as an extension point for this Information Model.

Table A1.1 lists the class and attribute descriptors used to describe the abstract classes and definitions of the descriptors.

Table A1.1 Class and attribute descriptors

Descriptor

Definition

Class name

The name given to the class being described.

Class type

The abstract class type of this class.

Data type

For value classes, the allowed structure for valid values for the class.  Valid data types are:

Boolean: The primitive, two-valued data type that uses the keywords “true” and “false” to indicate the logical state of an object.

FileHref: This is the URI for a file.  It has the same format as URI with a character length constraint of [1..4095].

HexBinary: This is a binary value coded in hexadecimal.  The range supported is ‘00000000’ to ‘FFFFFFFF’.

Integer: An integer.

Language: This is the set of codes for language identification as defined by ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2 coupled with the country code as defined by ISO 3166-1 (creating a language code-country code format).

LUID: A locally unique identifier (it may also be a globally unique identifier). It is a sequence of printable characters that does not contain carriage returns or tabs.  There is no length constraint but the smallest permitted maximum to be supported is 4095 characters.

LUIDRef: Reference to a LUID that is defined within the same scope as the LUIDRef i.e. if a LUIDRef is defined, the associated LUID must also exist in the same scope.

NormalizedString: A sequence of printable characters that does not contain carriage returns or tabs.  There is no length constraint.

Time: This is a time value as defined by ISO 8601 in the format of hh:mm:ss where ‘hh’ is the hours, ‘mm’ the minutes and ‘ss’ the seconds.

URI: Any syntactically valid instance of a URI as defined in RFC3986. Note: Many of the foundational Specifications, Standards, and Recommendations referred to by this Information Model use RFC2396 and RFC2732 as the definitions of URI. These are made obsolete by RFC3986, but many of the foundational documents have not been updated to reference RFC3986.

Value space

The range of valid values for this class. If the value space is unspecified, it is not known or is not important.  This value space must be defined in terms of the associated data-type.

Multiplicity

A property of a class indicating the number of times it may be used or appear in a given parent context. The values of this property are expressed as a range or shorthand for a range using this notation:

  • ‘0..1’ [optional; restricted]
  • ‘0..unbounded’ [optional; unrestricted]
  • ‘1..1’ [mandatory; restricted]
  • ‘1..unbounded’ [mandatory; unrestricted]

Multiplicities may also appear in short-hand notation in the UML models. The short-hand equivalents shall be (exclusive of bracketed comments):

  • ‘*’ [optional; unrestricted]
  • ‘1’ [mandatory; restricted]
  • ‘1..*’ [mandatory; unrestricted]

Where multiplicity is greater than one, the importance of the ordering of siblings is also indicated by appending either “,”ordered or “,” unordered.

ordered specifies a sequence of siblings as listed, unordered specifies a collection or bag of siblings for which the order is not important.  The default value is unordered.

Scope

The scope of the attribute is define as either:

·         ‘-‘ denotes local;

·         ‘+’ denotes global.

The appropriate symbol precedes the name of the attribute.

Parents

Lists classes that may be parents of this class.

Children

Lists the set of attributes and associations of this class in the form “[” child *“,” child “]”. One or more child classes may be expressed within square brackets. Each relationship in the list shall be separated by a comma.

Where more than one child is listed, the importance of the ordering of siblings is also indicated by appending either “,”ordered or “,” unordered.

ordered specifies a sequence of siblings as listed. unordered specifies a collection or bag of sibling for which the order is not important.  The default value is unordered.

Description

Contains descriptions relating to the class and its values space.

 

In general, this specification does not define the ways in which an end system must be realized. However, the required interoperability behavior requires that an end system have certain characteristics.  The static properties of these characteristics are defined in this Section, including:

·         When an attribute has a multiplicity of ‘1..1’, an end system must be capable of supporting one instance;

·         When an attribute has a multiplicity of ‘1..*’, an end system must be capable of supporting at least one instance.  The specification will also define the smallest permitted maximum number of instances that must also be supported by the end system;

·         When an attribute has a multiplicity of ‘0..1’, an end system should support a single instance;

·         When an attribute has a multiplicity of ‘0..*’, the specification will define the smallest permitted maximum number of instances that must also be supported by the end system.

 

About the Document

Title:                                       IMS Accessible Portable Item Protocol (APIP): Technical Specification for the QTIv2.1 Accessibility Features

Editors:                                  Colin Smythe (IMS Global), Mark McKell (IMS Global) and Mike Russell (Measured Progress)

Co-chairs:                              Gary Driscoll (ETS), Thomas Hoffmann (Measured Progress) and Wayne Ostler (Pearson)

Version:                                  1.0

Version Date:                         31 March 2014

Status:                                    Final Specification

Summary:                              The aim of the APIP Project is to use well established e-learning interoperability standards to enable the exchange of accessible assessment content between computer-based assessment systems, tools and applications.  Users of systems, tools and applications that adopt the APIP are able to use their accessible assessment content on a wide range of systems.  This document contains the information model and binding description for the new features that extend the IMS Question & Test Interoperability (QTI) v2.1 specification to support portable accessibility functionality for items and tests.

Revision Information:           First release.

Purpose:                                 This document is made available for adoption by the public community at large.

Document Location:             http://www.imsglobal.org/apip/

 

List of Contributors

The following individuals contributed to the development of this document:

Rob Abel, IMS Global (USA)

Justin Marks, NWEA (USA)

Michael Aumock, Pacific Metrics (USA)

Mark McKell, IMS Global (USA)

Marty Christensen, ACT (USA)

Sue Milne, JISC (UK)

Jason Craft, Pearson (USA)

Wayne Ostler, Pearson (USA)

Gary Driscoll, ETS (USA)

Zack Pierce, Measured Progress (USA)

Eric Hansen, ETS (USA)

Michelle Richard, Pearson (USA)

Regina Hoag, ETS (USA)

Mike Russell, Measured Progress (USA)

Thomas Hoffmann, Measured Progress (USA)

Farhat Siddiqui, ETS (USA)

Wilbert Kraan, JISC (UK)

Colin Smythe, IMS Global (UK)

Devin Loftis, McGraw-Hill/CTB (USA)

Wyatt VanderStucken, ETS (USA)

 

 

Revision History

 

Version No.

Release Date

Comments

Final Specification V1.0

31 March 2014

The Final Specification version of this document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. (“IMS Global”) is publishing the information contained in this document (“Specification”) for purposes of scientific, experimental, and scholarly collaboration only.

IMS Global makes no warranty or representation regarding the accuracy or completeness of the Specification.

This material is provided on an “As Is” and “As Available” basis.

The Specification is at all times subject to change and revision without notice. 

It is your sole responsibility to evaluate the usefulness, accuracy, and completeness of the Specification as it relates to you.

IMS Global would appreciate receiving your comments and suggestions.

Please contact IMS Global through our website at http://www.imsglobal.org.

Please refer to Document Name: IMS APIP Technical Specification for QTIv2.1 Accessibility Features v1.0 Final Specification

Date: 31 March 2014